**Biostatistics Questions**

**Question description**

Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 10

1.What demographic variables were measured at the nominal level of measurement in the OH et al. (2014) study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

2. What statistics were calculated to describe body mass index (BMI) in this study? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

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3. Were the distributions of scores for BMI similar for the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. Was there a significant difference in BMI between the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer Biostatistics Questions.

5. Based on the sample size of N=41, what frequency and percentage of the sample smoked? What frequency and percentage of the sample were non-drinkers (alcohol)? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

6. What measurement method was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) for the study participants? Discuss the quality of this measurement method and document your response.

7. What statistic was calculated to determine differences between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs? Were the groups significantly different for BMDs?

8. The researchers stated that there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups (see Table 2) Are these groups heterogeneous or homogeneous at the beginning of the study? Why is this important in testing the effectiveness of the therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) program? Biostatistics Questions.

9. Oh et al. (2014, p.296) stated that “the adherence rate to the TLM program was 99.6%.” Discuss the importance of intervention adherence, and document your response.

10. Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide a rationale for your answer.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 16

1.What do degrees of freedom (*df*) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the *dfs* in their study. Why is it important to know the *df* for a *t* ratio? Using the *df *formula, calculate the *df* for this study. Biostatistics Questions.

2. What are the means and standard deviations (SD) for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

4. What are the assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

5. Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer Biostatistics Questions.

7. Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

8. What variable has a result of t=-6.135, p=0.000? What does the result mean?

9. In your opinions, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

10. Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 17

1.What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the Lindseth et al. (2014) study?

2. In the introduction, Lindesth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

3. What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study. Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a rational for your answer.

5. Which t value in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the high- and low-aspartame diets? Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. Discuss why the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.

7. Discuss the meaning of the results regarding depression for this study. What is the clinical importance of this result?

8. What is the smallest, paired t-test value in Table 2? Why do you think the smaller t value are not statistically significant?

9. Discuss the clinical importance of these study results about the consumption of aspartame. Document your answer with a relevant source.

10. Are these study findings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for implementation in practice? Provide a rational for your answer.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 10

1.What demographic variables were measured at the nominal level of measurement in the OH et al. (2014) study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

2. What statistics were calculated to describe body mass index (BMI) in this study? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. Were the distributions of scores for BMI similar for the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. Was there a significant difference in BMI between the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5. Based on the sample size of N=41, what frequency and percentage of the sample smoked? What frequency and percentage of the sample were non-drinkers (alcohol)? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

6. What measurement method was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) for the study participants? Discuss the quality of this measurement method and document your response.

7. What statistic was calculated to determine differences between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs? Were the groups significantly different for BMDs?

8. The researchers stated that there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups (see Table 2) Are these groups heterogeneous or homogeneous at the beginning of the study? Why is this important in testing the effectiveness of the therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) program?

9. Oh et al. (2014, p.296) stated that “the adherence rate to the TLM program was 99.6%.” Discuss the importance of intervention adherence, and document your response.

10. Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide a rationale for your answer.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 16

1.What do degrees of freedom (*df*) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the *dfs* in their study. Why is it important to know the *df* for a *t* ratio? Using the *df *formula, calculate the *df* for this study.

2. What are the means and standard deviations (SD) for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

4. What are the assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

5. Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer. Biostatistics Questions.

7. Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

8. What variable has a result of t=-6.135, p=0.000? What does the result mean?

9. In your opinions, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

10. Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion. Biostatistics Questions.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 10

1.What demographic variables were measured at the nominal level of measurement in the OH et al. (2014) study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

2. What statistics were calculated to describe body mass index (BMI) in this study? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. Were the distributions of scores for BMI similar for the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. Was there a significant difference in BMI between the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer. Biostatistics Questions.

5. Based on the sample size of N=41, what frequency and percentage of the sample smoked? What frequency and percentage of the sample were non-drinkers (alcohol)? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

6. What measurement method did the study use to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) for the study participants? Discuss the quality of this measurement method and document your response.

7. What statistic was calculated to determine differences between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs? Were the groups significantly different for BMDs?

8. The researchers stated that there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups (see Table 2) Are these groups heterogeneous or homogeneous at the beginning of the study? Why is this important in testing the effectiveness of the therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) program?

9. Oh et al. (2014, p.296) stated that “the adherence rate to the TLM program was 99.6%.” Discuss the importance of intervention adherence, and document your response.

10. Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide a rationale for your answer.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 16

1.What do degrees of freedom (*df*) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the *dfs* in their study. Why is it important to know the *df* for a *t* ratio? Using the *df *formula, calculate the *df* for this study. Biostatistics Questions.

2. What are the means and standard deviations (SD) for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

4. What are the assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

5. Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. Identify the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups. Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7. Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

8. What variable has a result of t=-6.135, p=0.000? What does the result mean?

9. In your opinions, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer Biostatistics Questions.

10. Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 17

1.What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a study? Which of these assumptions do you the Lindseth et al. (2014) study met?

2. In the introduction, Lindesth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

3. What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study. Did the hypothesis get accepted or rejected? Provide a rational for your answer.

5. Which t value in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the high- and low-aspartame diets? Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer Biostatistics Questions.

6. Discuss why the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.

7. Discuss the meaning of the results regarding depression for this study. What is the clinical importance of this result?

8. What is the smallest, paired t-test value in Table 2? Why do you think the smaller t value are not statistically significant?

9. Discuss the clinical importance of these study results about the consumption of aspartame. Document your answer with a relevant source.

10. Are these study findings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for implementation in practice? Provide a rational for your answer.

#### Bio-statistics Questions Exercise 17

1.What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think Lindseth et al. (2014) study met? Biostatistics Questions.

2. In the introduction, Lindesth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

3. What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study. Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a rational for your answer.

5. Which t value in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the high- and low-aspartame diets? Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Biostatistics Questions.

6. Discuss why the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.

7. Discuss the meaning of the results regarding depression for this study. What is the clinical importance of this result?

8. What is the smallest, paired t-test value in Table 2? Why do you think the smaller t value are not statistically significant?

9. Discuss the clinical importance of these study results about the consumption of aspartame. Document your answer with a relevant source.

10. Are these study findings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for implementation in practice? Provide a rational for your answer. Biostatistics Questions.