Developing a Care Plan
Developing a Care Plan
Care planning in nursing is a vital aspect of nursing practice as it provides the outline for patient care. A good care plan should include aspects such as accuracy, completeness, and the content should be relevant (Johnson et al., 2018). Accordingly, this paper will provide a care plan for the aggregate population (South Charlotte), as well as the disaster management plan to address the major health risks in the population.
Comprehensive Care Plan
The aggregate participants in South Charlotte are older adults aged 65 years and over. The main health risks for this aggregate population include A1C management, surgical risks of diabetes, and increased BMI (obesity).
- Ineffective A1C management deficit and increased of infections, wound healing and slow healing surgical outcomes
- Imbalanced nutrition more than body requirements as indicated by a BM1>40
Strategies to Address the Major Health Risks
- A multidisciplinary team should be formed to promote health in the target population. Health promotion should include providing support for self-management education for people with diabetes. The health promotion program in South Charlotte should ensure that all older adults with diabetes take part in diabetes self-management education. This will equip them with the required skills, knowledge, and ability for diabetes self-care, and especially managing and reducing the AIC values, as a measure of effective glycemic control (Al-Rasheedi, 2015). Effective HbA1c control will also prevent long-term complications associated with diabetes. Moreover, the participants should be provided with self-management support that will help them implement and sustain the gained self-management skills and behaviors.
- Implement an exercise program in South Charlotte targeting older adults with diabetes: The older population with type 2 diabetes will be recruited to the exercise program where they will be encouraged to perform at least two weekly sessions of resistance exercise. Evidence shows that resistance training among older adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes reduces AIC (Alvarez et al., 2017). Moreover, the increased physical activity will help in lowering the BMI for the target population and thus address the issue of obesity in this population.
- Recommend compulsory influenza and anti-pneumococcal immunization for all older adults in South Charlotte. These immunizations will reduce respiratory infections, hospitalization, and the mortalities associated with respiratory tract infections (Alvarez et al., 2017). Infections, including respiratory tract infections, are very prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Smoking cessation counseling programs should be integrated into the routine element of diabetes care. In addition, all individuals with type 2 diabetes should be educated to stop smoking or inhaling secondary tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoking is attributed to numerous health risks, including the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular conditions, and premature death. Smoking cessation is associated with the improvement of metabolic parameters, as well as decreased blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes (Hieshima et al., 2018).
- Integrating nutritional therapy in diabetes treatment: All older adults with type 2 diabetes in South Charlotte should be provided with a personalized eating plan. Nutrition therapy is a key aspect of diabetes management and plays a big role in stabilizing AIC values; therefore, the older adults with type 2 diabetes should be vigorously involved in education, treatment planning, and self-management with their healthcare team, and this should include the collaborative development of the personalized eating plan (Franz & MacLeod, 2018). All people with type 2 diabetes in South Charlotte should be referred and linked with a registered dietitian with the required skills and knowledge to provide diabetes-specific nutrition therapy. Emphasis should focus on providing healthy eating patterns. Also, to reduce weight in the target population, the participants should be educated to eat healthily by consuming a variety of fruits and high vegetable intake, while reducing intake of carbohydrates (Franz & MacLeod, 2018). This will assist in weight loss.
- Lastly, all aggregate participants in South Charlotte should be educated on the importance of adhering to the prescribed medications. Improved adherence to treatment in individuals with type 2 diabetes will enhance glycemic control and thus reduce morbidity and mortality allied to uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (Polonsky & Henry, 2016).
Disaster Management Plan
Charlotte NC region is mainly typified by a moderate climate with a clear discrepancy between warm and cold seasons. Winters are normally characterized by cold weather with a lot of snowing and heavy rainfalls. The likely disasters that may affect the aggerate population in Charlotte NC include hurricanes and flooding. Charlotte NC is a region at a high risk of flooding and storm surge associated with hurricanes. Floods and hurricanes lead to effects such as deaths, injuries, adverse effects on human health and welfare, destruction to the infrastructure, and interruptions to education and business (Tullos D. (2018).
The national climate assessment shows that Charlotte NC has a high probability of experiencing flooding and hurricanes. However, flooding the most likely environmental risk to affect Charlotte NC. This is because Charlotte NC has varying physiography that makes it extremely venerable to flooding and also hurricanes. Charlotte NC has many areas that are low-lying and flat and also coastlines and valleys that make it predisposed to flooding, after an accumulation of heavy rainfall (Lickley, et al., 2014). From the historical evidence, there is a high likelihood that Charlotte NC will continue experiencing flooding and a moderate likelihood of Charlotte NC experiencing hurricanes in the future.
To mitigate the effects of possible hurricanes and flooding, projects, and policies aimed to lower or eliminate the effects of flooding and hurricanes on people and property should be implemented (Tullos D. (2018). This should include evacuation plans and procedures in case of a disaster. Additionally, the shelter and feeding of the affected individuals should be prioritized, and more importantly provision of treatment to the injured.
Secondly, education, training, and outreach efforts emphasizing the effects of the hazards and methods to increase resiliency should be conducted. This should include educating and training the community members on the appropriate precautionary measures to take in case of flooding or hurricanes Lickley, et al., 2014). For example, community members should be educated to avoid low spots such as basements or underpasses during flooding and avoid low-lying areas. People should also be advised to always remain indoor during hurricanes since strong winds blow away anything around and if their homes are not on higher ground, to access a shelter. It is also important to avoid driving into flooded areas. In case the emergency managers advise people to evacuate, the community members should be advised to ensure they evacuate immediately (Tullos D. (2018). This type of education will inform community members on actions to take in case of a disaster.
More importantly, healthcare providers in the area, and especially nurses who are the front-line healthcare workers should be educated and trained regarding disaster management. This will equip them with the required skills and knowledge to handle victims of disasters such as hurricanes and flooding within healthcare organizations.
Lastly, a flood/hurricane insurance program should be in place to provide residents of Charlotte NC with incentives to adopt land-use regulations and prohibit constructions lower than the 100-year flood elevation (Lickley, et al., 2014).
The nursing diagnosis for the aggregate population includes ineffective A1C management deficit and increased infections, wound healing and slow healing surgical outcomes; and imbalanced nutrition more than body requirements. Strategies include outreach education to the community members on diabetes self-management, including implementation of weight loss programs, promoting physical activities, and integrating a healthy diet in the diabetes treatment plan. The most likely disasters in Charlotte NC include flooding and hurricanes.
Al-Rasheedi A. A. (2015). Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Countries of Arabic Gulf. International journal of health sciences, 9(3), 345–350.
Alvarez, C. E., Clichici, L., Patricia Guzmán-Libreros, A., Navarro-Francés, M., & Ena, J. (2017). Survey of vaccination practices in patients with diabetes: A report examining patient and provider perceptions and barriers. Journal of clinical & translational endocrinology, 9, 15–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcte.2017.06.002
Franz, M. J., & MacLeod, J. (2018). Success of nutrition-therapy interventions in persons with type 2 diabetes: challenges and future directions. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity: targets and therapy, 11, 265–270. https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S141952.
Hieshima, K., Suzuki, T., Sugiyama, S., Kurinami, N., Yoshida, A., Miyamoto, F., Kajiwara, K., Jinnouchi, T., & Jinnouchi, H. (2018). Smoking Cessation Ameliorates Microalbuminuria With Reduction of Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate in Patients With Already Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of clinical medicine research, 10(6), 478–485. https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3400w.
Johnson, L., Edward, K. L., & Giandinoto, J. A. (2018). A systematic literature review of accuracy in nursing care plans and using standardized nursing language. Collegian, 25(3), 355-361.
Lickley, M. J., Lin, N., & Jacoby, H. D. (2014). Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk. Climate Risk Management, 6, 18-26.
Polonsky, W. H., & Henry, R. R. (2016). Poor medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: recognizing the scope of the problem and its key contributors. Patient preference and adherence, 10, 1299–1307. https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S106821.
Tullos D. (2018). Opinion: How to achieve better flood-risk governance in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(15), 3731–3734. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1722412115
Developing a Care Plan Last week, you conducted a risk assessment to identify the health risks faced by the aggregate you selected. This week, begin working on a comprehensive care plan for the aggregate and submit it to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned. The care plan should propose a nursing diagnosis for the aggregate and include strategies to tackle the major health risks identified during the risk assessment. In addition, it should include a disaster management plan with the following components: List of disasters that might affect your aggregate (take into consideration the geographical location of the aggregate, past history, etc.) Strategies for handling at least two disasters from the list Recommendation for a disaster supplies kit Propose a nursing diagnosis and suggest interventions that address the major health risks identified from the risk assessment. In your care plan, include a list of disasters that may affect the aggregate and a disaster management plan. Submission Details: Your comprehensive care plan should be in a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document.