Disease surveillance DQ Essay

Disease surveillance DQ Essay

Topic 2 DQ 1

The CDC Division of Health Informatics and Surveillance (DHIS) supports NNDSS by receiving, securing, processing, and providing nationally notifiable infectious diseases data to disease-specific CDC programs. DHIS also supports local, state, and territorial public health departments in helping them collect, manage, and submit case notification data to CDC for NNDSS. DHIS provides this support through funding, health information exchange standards and frameworks, electronic health information systems, and technical support through the NNDSS web site, tools, and training. DHIS and the CDC programs publish statistical data based on NNDSS to support recognition of outbreaks, monitoring of shifts in disease patterns, and evaluation of disease control activities.(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019) Disease surveillance DQ Essay.


What is monitored is done very well. The issues with gaps in information is that they ranking issues according to priority and government moneys that are used to hold up programs like this. Often government operations have strings attached that may do with trade or money we are sending over to support a country. Disease surveillance DQ Essay. Gaps in information can be as easily as this is a new priority and the resources were not available to track that information as those resources were used to track what they already are tracking.- for example – In the United States, there are data systems for specific diseases, such as the National Program of Cancer Registries; however, there is no similar system for SCD, which could determine the actual or true number of people living with SCD and how SCD affects their health. (SCD summit 2019)

The global challenge is that the rest of the world may lack seeing this tracking as a real issue or even needed at all. Many countries don’t even track the people living there, let alone keeping medical records in a national database. Often it is not a lack of wanting to it is the lack of resources and the ability to upkeep them. For example India: Although India is expected to meet the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals on extreme poverty in due time, a very large share of its population lives on less than $3.2 a day, putting India’s economy safely into the category of lower middle income economies. (World Economic Forum) Disease surveillance DQ Essay.

I see the world as a garden that grows wild. Some areas love the heat and others love the shade. Often you may want the benefits of one plant in one area but if you move them the conditions are not right and it down not grow. I would think that if teams were allowed to set up systems and structures of information in those areas they could gather the information they would like to have and would like to share. Issues will arise such as India has 1.6 billion people and many are not kept track of. In time it may be possible but the need will grow as the concern for the health of those countries grow.

Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/elsevier/2019/gordis-epidemiology_6e.php

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Retrieved from https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/

Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015) Introduction to Public Health Promises and Practices (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Disease surveillance DQ Essay.



Topic 2 DQ 1

The CDC’s National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was implemented in order to track cases and spread of diseases through voluntary reporting by governmental agencies (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014). The strengths of this system are the foundation and high standards it provides, specifically by incentivizing its users to report timely and accurate information (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014). It also aims to improve the interchange, handling, and dissemination of data used for disease surveillance (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014). However, standardized systems such as the NNDSS also have their share of weaknesses. For example, there are numerous systems being used in addition to the NNDSS that are not robust nor integrated with one another (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014). This can often create redundancy, reporting difficulties, and functionality concerns on the behalf of the reporting agencies using the varied systems (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014). This calls for the need of enhanced coordination not only globally but nationally so that public health authorities worldwide can receive actionable disease data (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014) Disease surveillance DQ Essay.

The challenges of global disease surveillance are primarily how cases are reported in developing countries and how disease is defined (Celentano & Szklo, 2019). In developing countries where certain diseases may be prevalent, it can be difficult to reach targeted areas or uphold communication with authorities positioned away from these areas (Celentano & Szklo, 2019) Disease surveillance DQ Essay. Similarly, countries may define disease differently, depending on laboratory access and the ability to obtain proper resources for disease diagnosis (Celentano & Szklo, 2019). An example of these global surveillance issues relates to the Ebola virus outbreak where some response systems in Africa were inadequate due to underqualified health care workers and mistrust for modern health care practices (Adokiya & Awoonor-Williams, 2016).

Constant efforts to improve disease surveillance has been a high priority goal for governmental bodies like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2014, the CDC created its own Surveillance Strategy that aims to promote progress and trust amongst surveillance partners (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014). The NNDSS was one of the outcomes of this initiative and ongoing improvement tactics for this data system are in place as an overarching part of the Surveillance Strategy (Richards, Iademarco, & Anderson, 2014) Disease surveillance DQ Essay.


Adokiya, M. N., & Awoonor-Williams, J. K. (2016). Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana. Global health action9(1), 29763.

Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295

Richards, C. L., Iademarco, M. F., & Anderson, T. C. (2014). A new strategy for public health surveillance at CDC: improving national surveillance activities and outcomes. Public Health Reports129(6), 472-476 Disease surveillance DQ Essay.