Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay

Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay

Topic 1 DQ 1

An epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community or region of a group of illnesses of similar nature, clearly in excess of normal expectancy and derived from a common or a propagated source. An epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people. (Celentano, & Szklo 2019). For example, in 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.


Pandemic refers to a worldwide epidemic. A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. HIV/AIDS is an example of one of the most destructive global pandemics in history. Influenza pandemics have occurred more than once. A preventive measure for a pandemic is vaccinations. In addition to vaccinations, you can take other prevention steps like these: Wash your hands often with soap and water. If these are not available, use an alcohol-based hand cleaner or gel sanitizer. If using a gel, rub your hands until they become dry. (DerSarkissian, 2019) Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.

Endemic is defined as the habitual presence of a disease within a given geographic area. It may also refer to the usual occurrence of a given disease within such an area (sometimes referred to as the “background rate of disease. Examples of endemic diseases include chickenpox that occurs at a predictable rate among young school children in the United States and malaria in some areas of Africa.

Epidemic-Dengue is an ongoing risk in many parts of Africa and the Middle East. Dengue virus disease became a nationally notifiable condition in 2010. Cases are reported to CDC by state, territorial, and local health departments. (CDC, 2019). Travelers to areas of risk should protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. Dengue is a disease caused by a virus spread through mosquito bites. The disease can take up to 2 weeks to develop with illness generally lasting less than a week Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.

Primary Prevention: Using Repellents to Protection against Mosquitoes bites such as EPA-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective e. g DEET. Risk increases with the duration of travel and disease incidence in the travel destination (such as during the rainy season and during epidemics).

Secondary- A vaccine to prevent dengue (Dengvaxia®) is licensed and available in some countries for people ages 9-45 years old. The World Health Organization recommends that the vaccine only be given to persons with confirmed prior dengue virus infection. (CDC, 2019). Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.

Tertiary prevention: There is no specific medication to treat dengue. Treat the symptoms of dengue and see your healthcare provider. Take acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol outside of the United States) to control fever and relieve pain. Do not take aspirin or ibuprofen! Fever should be controlled with acetaminophen and tepid sponge baths. Febrile patients should avoid mosquito bites to reduce the risk of further transmission.


DerSarkissian, Carol. (2019). Epidemics, Pandemics, and Outbreaks. Retrieved from. https://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/what-are-epidemics-pandemics-outbreaks#1-1

Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC, 2019). Dengue. Retrieved from. https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/about/index.html Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay


Topic 1 DQ 1

Endemic is an outbreak that occurs at a predictable rate in a certain area or among a set population. It usually remains at a steady-state, but do not disappear from a population. Chickenpox is classed as an endemic as it occurs at a high but predictable rate amongst youngsters (CDC, 2012).

An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease amongst a large number of people in a given population. During an epidemic, the disease will normally spread in two weeks or less.

There have been more 14 epidemics since 2010, including the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, which killed 11,300 people between 2013 and 2016. There are some non-infectious diseases that are presumed epidemic such as diabetes and obesity (CDC, 2012). Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.

Pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new infectious disease that stretches over a larger area, infects more people and causes more deaths than an epidemic. There have been a number of devastating pandemics including smallpox, and tuberculosis; in 2009 a pandemic of swine flu killed 14,286 people worldwide (Steward, 2019).

Prevention, as it relates to health, is really about avoiding disease before it starts. It has been defined as the plans for, and the measures taken, to prevent the onset of a disease or other health problems before the occurrence of the undesirable health event. The three levels of prevention are:

Primary Prevention is intervening before health effects occur, through measures such as vaccinations, altering risky behaviors (poor eating habits, tobacco use), and banning substances known to be associated with a disease or health condition(CDC, 2014). Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.

Secondary Prevention is screening to identify diseases in the earliest stages, before the onset of signs and symptoms, through measures such as mammography and regular blood pressure testing (CDC, 2014).

Tertiary Prevention is managing disease post-diagnosis to slow or stop disease progression through measures such as chemotherapy, rehabilitation, and screening for complications (CDC, 2014). Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Introduction to Epidemiology. Retrieved from



Steward, K. (2019). Epidemic vs Pandemic. Retrieved from



Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). What Is Prevention? Retrieved from



Topic 1 DQ 1

When an endemic occurs, it refers to a continuous or typical existence of a disease or infection within a certain population (Principles of Epidemiology, 2012). An example of this would be the expected spread of chickenpox amongst school-aged children before the Varicella vaccine was created. Epidemic is the opposite situation, where an often sudden increase in disease appears in a select population (Principles of Epidemiology, 2012). An epidemic example started with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa where many communities suddenly fell ill with this virus after the initial transmission that is believed to have occurred from bats. Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay One current epidemic happening in the United States is the outbreak of Escherichia coli infections in relation to Romaine lettuce. While this contamination has been reported multiple times, another recent eruption has transpired, effecting 25 states with 138 reported cases and 72 hospitalizations (Outbreak of E. coli Infections, 2019). Finally, a pandemic is an extension of an epidemic, in which the sudden spread of disease occurs over multiple countries or continents around the world (Principles of Epidemiology, 2012). Using the same Ebola outbreak as an example, a pandemic occurred when this disease was spread to multiple other continents through travel outside of the initially infected West African countries Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.

Public health professionals have established three types of prevention for these disease outbreak classes and they are primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. When preventing or controlling an epidemic, primary prevention can be achieved by taking action before an event occurs, such as using the Varicella vaccine to avoid chickenpox in school children. Secondary prevention involves early screening and intervention like utilizing mandatory physicals for school eligibility that take a thorough family history and vaccine records. This would identify any unvaccinated children that may be susceptible to a chickenpox incident in school. Finally, tertiary prevention is implemented to slow or stop a disease that has already begun. If a chickenpox epidemic would occur in a particular school, public health officials could utilize quarantine and treatment methods to prevent further spread to other unvaccinated children. Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.


Outbreak of E. coli Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce. (2019, December 19). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2019/o157h7-11-19/index.html.

Principles of Epidemiology. (2012, May 18). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.html. Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic definition essay.