Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example

Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example

Theory/Author Name and Background

Peplau’s Theory is a nursing theory famously known for agitating for human relationship aspect to be incorporated in any nursing undertakings. It is classified as a mid-range theory that brings forth answers to the specific phenomenon in nursing one being the need for self-awareness in nursing (Smith & Liehr, 2014). The author of the theory is Hildegard Elizabeth Peplau, who served as a nurse in the Army in the World War II. At the epicenter of the theory is the need to ensure that the relationship between a nurse and patient is a give and take one. Her argument was that in there is the need to ensure that the relationship is an interactional one. This is because according to the theory, both the nurse and the patient bring forth vital information that is helpful in the attainment of the common goal, that of helping the patient to recover.


            According to the theory, the work of the nurse is to help people realize their problem a phenomenon that can only be met if there is a healthy human relation and interaction between the patient and the nurse (McKenna, Pankhihar & Murphy, 2014). She also felt that nurses ought to get educated to serve better the patients, and the aim of the theory was to help the nurses serve better. Her career as a nurse in the Army in the World War II presented a motivation for her towards the formulation of the theory where the patient-nurse relationship was vital in therapeutic nursing undertakings. Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example.

Peplau’s theory was heavily influenced by ‘Harry Stack Sullivan’s theory of interpersonal relations’ (Parker & Smith, 2010).  The theory argued that people were well understood from networks of relationship in which they were involved. The call was for doctors to concentrate on the interaction aspect of the mental illness patients and not the “intrapsychic” aspect. In the same spirit, Peplau agitated for nurses to enhance their relationship with their patients. According to the theory, it is through the close nurse-patient ties created that nurses get vital information that enables them to take better care of their patients (Parker & Smith, 2010). It through the healthy inter-personal relation between a nurse and the patient that helps the nurse create a therapeutic environment vital in patients’ recovery.

The theory was aimed at sensitizing the nurses on the importance of applying human relation while dealing with different cases in their line of duty. It was also keen of insisting on the importance of having a healthy interaction between a patient and a nurse. The theory was also keen on improving the ‘environment’ metaparadigm of nursing (Smith & Liehr, 2014). The call was for the nurses to ensure that they provide ‘therapeutic’ environment that aid them to better help their client find their problem. This was a vital aspect of the Peplau’s theory because according to the theory, the work of a nurse was to help their patients find their problem, particularly in the mental illness docket.

Theory Description

The theory utilizes inductive reasoning, and this can is heavily evident in terms of the human relation aspect between the nurse and the patient. The theory has stipulated on the importance of the human relationship in nursing engagement; it gives an inductive manner through which the relationship is started and ended.  The inductive aspect of reasoning is seen with the theory argument the interpersonal relationship starts with orientation. Here the intention is to define the problem at hand (specific observation). This help in defining the relevant course of action needed to help the patient. Identification is the next step where the intention at hand is identifying the best professional help applicable to the case. The next step is the Exploitation phase, where the nurse utilizes professional skills (looking for accumulated evidence) to come up with the optimal approach to handling the case at hand. The last phase is the Resolution phase where the goal has been met, and now the relationship has to end. This state is very similar to the phase where the theory is formulated bringing to the end the undertakings. The phases of the interpersonal relationship clearly classify the theory as an inductive theory. Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example.

Concepts Of The Theory   

The primary concept of the theory is the fact that nursing entails helping other people clearly define their problems. Besides, the theory calls for reconciliation of ‘self’ to better serve the others (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). Another concept is that nurses should incorporate the human relation aspect in all cases. It is also the take of the theory that nursing should be therapeutic and should be of help to those that come seeking. Another concept is that nursing is an interpersonal undertaking since it is based on the exchanged between different parties seeking a common goal. Moreover, the theory argues that realization of nursing goals is a consequence of sequenced steps. Finally the theory argues that with both the nurse and the patient working together, they both acquire knowledge increasingly with time.

The concepts are defined operationally since they are all action-based at the different level of engagement by a nurse. For example, the call for upholding the human relation while handling different cases while practicing nursing. In the same spirit, the concept of nursing being therapeutic demands that nurses should provide the recovery upholding environment for patients at all the time (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). The author is very consistent in the application of the concept since all the concepts demonstrate well-calculated steps of making nursing an interactional engagement. For example, there is the call to maintain human relation and to make a nursing an interpersonal process where the nurse and the patients constantly engage for a common goal. The concepts are explicit since the concepts express directly what nursing should be and what it should be centered on. The theory points out that nursing should be an interaction-based undertaking. This is a direct demand of what nursing ought to be based on or should meet.

Concept Relationship 

The concepts are heavily intertwined with the common codes of interaction and human relation (Smith & Liehr, 2014). The concept of helping others define their problem is closely related to that one of ensuring continued interpersonal relation. It is only through a strong relationship that a person can confine to another the problem he or she is facing. On the other hand, provision of the therapeutic environment comes about through understanding what forms the ‘therapeutic’ environment. This can be well understood by utilizing human relation and interpersonal interaction. The above illustrations clearly demonstrate a coherent relationship among the concepts of the Peplau’s theory.



The theory has two major assumptions. The first assumption is that the kind of a nurse one becomes plays a significant role in influencing what the patient will learn throughout the illness. The other assumption is the fact that nursing entails developing a personality that can handle day to day interpersonal challenges, in other words, ensuring a stable ‘self’ to serve others better (McKenna, Pankhihar & Murphy, 2014). Peplau later added an assumption that some illness provides platforms for learning and development. Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example.


Theory’s Four Concepts Of The Nursing Metaparadigm

The theory has its description of the four nursing metaparadigm namely; person, the environment, nursing, and health. Peplau’s theory describes the person as an organism that engages in actions geared towards reducing tension caused by needs (Smith & Liehr, 2014). The environment is presented as all forces action on a person from outside and mostly in the form of culture. Health is viewed as a fast forward movement in terms of personality and human processes. The movement is in terms of creativity, community living, constructiveness, productiveness and personal (Smith & Liehr, 2014). The theory perception on nursing is that it is a process that is of therapeutic and interpersonal nature.

Clarity Of The Theory

The theory message is clear and explicit with the primary demand being an upholding of human relation in nursing. It is also easily understood due to an in-depth insight availed on how interpersonal relationship is forged and terminated in the nursing undertaking. The theories concepts are also coherent, and this makes it possible to identify easily the common goal and objective of the theory. The theory is clearly understood because it has a singular demand for nursing; it demands the need to make nursing a more engaging discipline where the patient and the nurse fully engage in line of realizing the common goal (Smith & Liehr, 2014). It is also clearly illustrated that even though, there is the need to create a strong bond with the patients; there comes a time when this relation has to come to an end. The rationale for the theory’s call for human relation between the two parties in nursing is the fact that through the interaction, helpful information is availed that heavily help in identifying the problem and formulation of the relevant measures. Over and above, the theory makes an intentional action of demonstrating the relevance of every one of its demands in addition to showing the applicability in nursing practice. This is clearly demonstrated in terms of the steps involved in interpersonal relationship vital in nursing where the theory gives a full detailed analysis of the steps and the expected goals for each step.


General Application 

The theory provides a sound and diligent platform where all the nursing actions can be guided.  The theory calls for human relation while handling the different cases in the practice. This is very viable because, for a proper diagnosis, patient’s input in terms of information is very important (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). It is through the information availed by the patient that nurses are able to make the relevant decision in terms of the most relevant professional help. In case of an emergency, the patient’s information is very important because it help the nurses in the ER to do the right checkups promptly. Through the timeless, it is possible to handle deadly cases earlier enough thereby increasing the chances of patient’s survival. Besides, it is through the ties created between the patient and the nurse that makes the patient feel more comfortable into opening up their problem to the nurse at hand. Trust is very important since it enables the patient to convey very personal information to the nurses some of which forms the backbone of the prevailing problem facing the patient. Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example.


            Another component of the theory is the call for nursing to provide a therapeutic environment to the patient. This is also a very relevant call in nursing since the environment in which the patients find themselves in heavily determining the degree of recovery. Conducive environment for the patient helps in the creation of hope a phenomenon vital to any patient’s recovery (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). A nurse should be a tool of hope and should instill hope in patients thereby motivating them more into making the needed mental and physical change that is important in helping them make a quick recovery. The exchange between a nurse and the patient and the importance of the conducive environment to the patients are two aspects very common in healthcare facilities.  This clearly demonstrates that the Peplau’s theory was and continues to be applicable in many nursing situations. It is, therefore, correct to conclude that the theory do provide helpful insights where nurses can consult in the mile of ensuring that they continue helping the patients in the best way possible.

Application In Specific Nursing Area

As a Family Nurse Practitioner, the goal is to provide health care services to family members throughout their lifetime. This is a very challenging task because to ensure the perpetuity of the services, the relationship has to be based on a high level of trust. Peplau’s theory calls for human relation in nursing undertakings. As FNP, there is a high level of human interaction due to the continued interaction with the family members. It is important to ensure that the relationship created is strong enough to help both parties exchange all the relevant information that help in making the right action at the right time. The FNP is also expected to provide a conducive environment where all the family members feel free to consult the nurse and in addition avail all the relevant information.

Peplau’s theory demonstrates the importance of enabling a good environment to both recovery and availing of the information (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). In the same spirit, FNP is supposed to create an enabling environment whereby the family members feel free to avail all relevant information in the best way possible. This helps the nurse to make the relevant actions that help in upholding the family member health. The theory also argues that nursing entails helping people find their underlying problems (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). In most case, FNP role is to help the family members understand better different aspects that might be affecting their health status. They may range from lifestyle to diet, and the FNP has to explain to family members the possible reasons behind their prevailing health status and the best way out. Finally, the theory argues that some medical issues present learning platforms. This is very evident for FNP in the case where the case at hand is unique to the family at hand.  When dealing with these cases, the FNP is able to get new insights thereby becoming more informed and thereby helping the family concerned understand the problem better. In turn, they are able to handle the disease better either in term of treatment or management. However, both the family concerned and their nurse become more familiar with the unique case.

The above illustrations show helpful insights that can be drawn from Peplau’s theory in Family Nurse Practitioner perspective. The human relation and environment aspect of nursing which are agitated for in the theory are also occurrences heavily evident in the FNP’s role of serving the various families. It is through the relation created that enable a healthy degree of trust that guarantees the perpetuity of the relationship.


Peplau’s theory is a comprehensive mid-range theory that avails good and detailed aspect that need to be held in nursing to make it serve the patients better. Its applicability cut across all the specialty of nursing and this is a clear demonstration that indeed the theory is not only helpful in nursing but also ‘a must apply’ if the nursing undertakings are to be centered on improved health delivery. There if therefore the need to pay respect to the theories demands in any nursing undertakings and in doing that ensuring that quality services are the norm in health care facilities.

Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example








McKenna, H. P., Pankhihar, M., & Murphy, F. (2014). Fundamentals of nursing models, theories

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Parker, M. E., & Smith, M. C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia: F.A.

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Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (2014). Middle range theory for nursing. New York: Springer

Taylor, S. G., & Renpenning, K. M. L. (2011). Self-care science, nursing theory, and evidence-

based practice. New York: Springer Pub.

Free Nursing Theory Analysis Essay Paper Example