How to write a hypothesis Complete Guide

Have you ever tried proving something foreign to you and your audience? Where do you get good sources of a hypothesis? When it comes to research on how to write a hypothesis, the content is overwhelming, but the experience is to die for.

If you have some life-changing queries, this is the time to work on them. Formulate a hypothesis and go ahead to test and prove it. The world will remember you and use your knowledge to further their understanding.

What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a proposition made as a basis for reasoning without any assumption of its truth. For a hypothesis to be termed scientific, it must be tested. Scientists base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot clearly be explained using the available scientific theories.

Are you wondering how to write a hypothesis? A reasonable hypothesis is an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true. It’s constructed before any valid or applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review.

 Hypothesis versus prediction relationship

The most perplexing question among students is, ‘what is the relationship between hypothesis and prediction?’. A hypothesis definition is an idea about how something works that can be tested using experiments. At the same time, a prediction says what will happen in an investigation if the hypothesis is correct.

Hypothesis and prediction are both a type of guess, hence a source of confusion to many. You can come up with an idea without any valid evidence hence a hypothesis. A prophet can also make a prediction based on nothing at all. Confusing huh?

Difference between prediction and hypothesis

Scientists have used prediction versus hypothesis interchangeably, but are they similar? If you want to learn the difference between the two when preparing how to write a hypothesis, it all comes down to a science.

So, what exactly is the difference between hypothesis and prediction? A hypothesis is an educated, testable guess in science, while a prediction uses observable phenomena to make a future projection. Scientists must formulate a hypothesis before doing scientific experiments.

A good hypothesis must explain why a specific occurrence is happening. You can therefore call a hypothesis a testable guess. A prediction is an estimation made from observations. A prediction is what you expect to happen if your idea is valid in science.

Key points to note between prediction and hypothesis

  • A hypothesis, unlike a prediction, is a more philosophical assumption based on facts.
  • Hypotheses define existing variables and analyze the relationship[s] between them.
  • Predictions are often fictional and lack grounding.
  • A prediction is most often used to foretell events in the future.
  • A prediction can only be proven once-when the predicted event occurs or doesn’t occur.
  • A hypothesis can remain a hypothesis even if one scientist has already proven or disproven it

Hypothesis versus theory differences

Scientifically reasoning, a hypothesis is an assumption made before completion of any research for testing. On the other hand, a theory is a principle that explains a phenomenon already supported by data.

When learning how to write a good hypothesis, the theory and hypothesis are used interchangeably. Theories combine experimental results to provide full explanations, such as the Big Bang Theory. A hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from the background review.

A theory is supported by evidence. It’s simply a principle formed as an attempt to explain things that data has already substantiated. Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, a theory’s validity is higher than that of a hypothesis.

Similarities between a theory and a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is based on possibility, projection, and prediction, but the result is uncertain. On the other hand, a theory is based on evidence, verification, repeated testing, and broad scientific consensus. You might be wondering what’s the theory versus hypothesis similarity. Both the theory and hypothesis are falsifiable and testable.

Hypothesis versus theory comparison chart

                    Hypothesis Theory
Definition There is a suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon of a possible causal correlation among multiple phenomena. An idea well-substantiated, unifying explanation for a set of verified hypotheses.
Based on  Prediction, projection, and suggestion, but the result isn’t certain. Repeated testing, verification, and evidence.
Testable It is testable It is testable
Falsifiable It can be falsified It can be falsified.
Well substantiated A hypothesis is a guess or suggestion hence isn’t well-substantiated A theory is based on tested and proven evidence and is well substantiated.
Well-tested A hypothesis isn’t well tested A theory isn’t well tested.
Data Usually based on limited data It’s based on a broad set of data tested under varying circumstances.
Instance Specific-A hypothesis is usually based on precise observation and is limited to that instance General-A theory establishes a general principle through multiple tests and experiments.

This theory may apply to various specific instances

Purpose To present an uncertain possibility that can be explored further through experiment and observation. To explain why a large set of observations are consistently made

 

The key differences between a hypothesis and an assumption

A hypothesis is an uncertain explanation regarding a phenomenon or event and is believed to be accurate by the researcher. It must always go through the process of verification and investigation. An assumption is also a kind of belief that is true. An assumption may or may not be investigated.

An assumption, generally, refers to a belief. It doesn’t need any evidence to support it. It’s based on feelings or a hunch. Hypothesis versus assumption is often used together in research and confuses many people.

An assumption takes things for granted without any solid explanation behind it. On the other hand, a hypothesis is a type of assumption for a particular purpose of argument. Both are not already proven.

In the quest to learn how to write a hypothesis, a good hypothesis statement should.

  • Conjecture the direction of the relationship between two or more valuables.
  • Be stated clearly and unambiguously in the form of a declarative sentence.
  • Be testable

How to formulate a hypothesis

If you don’t know how to write a hypothesis, the steps to guide you are as follows.

  1. Ask a question

You must use the classic six who, what, where, when, why, or how in the formulation of the hypothesis. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you intend to answer. Hypothesis examples might vary.

  • Why do mermaids exist?
  • How did humans evolve from monkeys?
  • How does sleep influence motivation?
  • How does consumption of sugary drinks lead to obesity?
  • Why do lilies have the same number of petals?
  • What are the effects of stress on academic performance?

The question should be specific, researchable, and focused. Once you have the required sources of a hypothesis, it’s time to embark on some preliminary research.

  1. Gather preliminary research

You need to embark on the journey of how to write a hypothesis by collecting your data. The data comes from case studies, academic journals, and personal experiments and observations. It’s vital to explore your question from all sides.

If you come across conflicting data, use it to help guide the creation of your hypothesis. At times, these naysayers’ findings can be used as potential rebuttals to frame your study to address these concerns.

  1. Formulate your answer to your question

You have completed all your research, right? Now it’s time to think about how you will answer your question and defend your position. Remember to use your research to answer your question.

  1. Write a hypothesis

When it comes down to how to write a hypothesis, remember your hypothesis needs to be a statement, not a question. It’s time for the formulation of a hypothesis by writing the answer to your question. A good hypothesis must include.

  • Relevant variables
  • Predicted outcome
  • Who or what is being studied?
  1. Refine your hypothesis

You might be able to stop at jotting your research hypothesis, but some hypotheses might be a correlation by studying the difference between two groups. In the case of this instance, you are required to state the relationship or difference you expect to find.

  1. Creating a null hypothesis

A null hypothesis often denoted as H0 posits that there is no apparent difference or that there is no evidence to support a difference. Suppose you are a first-time student yearning to learn how to write a hypothesis. In that case, it’s essential to know the difference between a null versus an alternative hypothesis and how to create a null hypothesis.

Types of hypotheses

There are six types of hypotheses.

  • Simple hypothesis

This hypothesis shows the relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example, if you want to experience faster weight loss, eat more vegetables. Eating more vegetables is an independent variable while losing weight is the dependent variable.

  • Complex hypothesis

This hypothesis shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. For example, eating a lot of vegetables and fruits leads to

-rapid weight loss

-glowing skin

-reduced risk of many diseases

  • Alternative hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally indicated as H 1. This statement is used to identify the expected outcome of your research. The alternative hypothesis definition can be further divided into two subcategories, i.e., directional and non-directional hypotheses.

  • Directional hypothesis

A directional hypothesis shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables [dependent and independent] can also predict its nature.

For example, four-year-old children who eat proper food over five years have higher IQ levels than children who do not have a decent meal. This shows the effect and direction of effect as a hypothesis example.

  • Non -directional hypothesis.

In this case, there is no theory involved. A non-Directional hypothesis is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables without predicting the exact direction of the relationship. For instance, lecture attendance will influence test scores among students.

  • Null hypothesis

This type of hypothesis provides a statement opposite to the hypothesis; hence it’s a negative statement. There is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. When writing a good hypothesis, put in mind that a null hypothesis claims that there is no exact or actual correlation between the defined variables.

  • Associative and Casual hypothesis.

The associative hypothesis occurs when a change in one variable results in a difference in the other variable. On the other hand, the casual hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect interaction between two or more variables.

  • Research hypothesis

This statement is used to test the correlation between two or more valuables. For example, eating vitamin-rich foods affects human health.

Do you know the benefits of a good hypothesis?

If you desire to know how to write a hypothesis, your knowledge of its benefits is necessary. You know that you have mastered how to make a hypothesis if your hypothesis can,

  • Help make an observation and experiments
  • Become the starting point for the investigation
  • Help in verifying the observations
  • Help in directing the inquiries in the right directions.

What are the sources of a hypothesis?

If you desire to write a good hypothesis, the following are the sources.

  • The resemblance between the phenomena.
  • Past studies, present-day experience, and from your competitors.
  • Scientific theories.
  • General patterns that influence the thought process of people.

Are you aware of some of the features of a good hypothesis?

You are on the journey to discover how to write a hypothesis, right? Do you know that writing a hypothesis with a suitable hypothesis format is easy? Always remember that a good hypothesis must,

  1. Be clear and precise
  2. State the relationship between variables
  3. Be specific with the scope for conducting more tests.
  4. Be very simple.

Format of a hypothesis

A hypothesis often adheres to a basic format of ‘if [this happens], then [this will happen].’ When learning how to write a hypothesis, one way to structure it is to describe what will happen to the dependent variable if you are to make changes to the independent variable.

How do you format a hypothesis, then?

  1. State the problem that you want to attempt to solve. Ensure that your hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of your experiment.
  2. Try writing the hypothesis as an if-then statement
  3. Define the variables.

What are some of the common mistakes in hypothesis formulation?

Hypothesis formulation has been a classic issue of garbage in and garbage out for a while now. You need not be a genius to know how to write a hypothesis, but you need to avoid these pitfalls

  1. Ignorance of what you need to learn

Do you want to obtain good results? You have to be precise about what you intend to learn and then design your research experiment for learning just that. Testing many layers is tricky and leads to faulty conclusions.

In the quest ‘how to make a hypothesis,’ be clear about what you are testing and when. Knowing all this will ease your experiment design and power the rate at which you are learning.

  1. Using a quantitive technique to answer qualitative questions

Some of the qualitative methods used are diary projects, interviews, and usability tests which aid you to understand the situation. They greatly help you know something that may or may not be happening.  In the formulation of a hypothesis, these methods also expose bewildering interface elements and some of the gaps in your mental models and metaphors.

The quantitive research is superb at revealing how a large population behaves; however, it’s hard to uncover the reason behind those actions. On the other hand, qualitative research proves hard to generalize your findings beyond the particular context you observed.

  1. Beginning with the untestable hypothesis

Being unsystematic with your hypothesis is easy and might be the most typical mistake when formulating a hypothesis. You, therefore, must be more specific because it should be crystal clear whether your hypothesis is a success or a failure at the end of it.

  1. Lack of a solid reason why your change should have the coveted impact

You know what you want to learn, but do you think your change will necessarily impact people? In the end, you will have a lot of false positives in your experiment. A false-positive result means that one of your designs seems more productive than the other, but the results are all by chance.

  1. Testing too many dissimilarities

Testing too many variations increases the chances of a false positive. You should, therefore, increase the odds of your experiments by testing fewer variations.

  1. Trying your experiments with the wrong partakers

This is something that is often overlooked. For instance, if you want to market a new mum, you cant run your tests with experienced mothers or women who don’t have kids. Their ideas and behaviors, in this case, don’t really matter.

  1. Calling mediocre good

Do you want to be mediocre? To avoid this, determine upfront what you consider to be good. What level of improvement do you desire to see in your research hypothesis? If you want your hypothesis to pass, draw the line between good and mediocre.

  1. Terminating your experiment at the wrong time

From time to time, you might make the mistake of ending an investigation after your results are significant statistic-wise. Kindly don’t do this because you will have too many false positives.

  1. Underrating your experiment’s risk

Experiments are fun but underestimating their impact is terrible. You should make data-informed decisions and not act too smart by taking unnecessary risks. Just do your best to mitigate the risk.

  1. Collecting wrong data

Gathering the correct data in the proper form is necessary for formulating a hypothesis. Sounds easy, right? It’s very challenging because, before gathering data, you should think through what data you need.

  1. Drawing wrong conclusions

When you are told not to be dogmatic in your results, be aware that what didn’t work the previous year isn’t guaranteed to work this year. When concluding, keep in mind the fact that:

-Your experiment can refute or support your hypothesis but never prove them

-Your conclusions remain within the scope of your test.

  1. Following your data blindly

It’s rare to run experiments and have your results unfold for you what to do next. It’s rare because there are often other factors to consider when carrying out your investigations. If you over-rely on your data, you over-optimize and implement false positives, thus rely on your brain instead.

  1. Unfurling yourself pencil-thin

You must dig deep and learn a new method thoroughly before moving on to the next because each process requires developing an appropriate skill- set. By doing so, you get more value.

  1. Failure to know your tools

You can’t make good product decisions after trying unknown products on the market. You must know how the product works to make an informed decision.

What is a research hypothesis?

Have you just begun learning how to write a hypothesis? You probably notice that the phrases ‘research hypothesis’ and ‘scientific hypotheses are used quite a bit. You marvel at what they mean in a research context, right?

A hypothesis is a commonly mistaken word by individuals, for it has a precise meaning within academic research. It’s therefore advisable to understand the exact meaning before using the word in your academic writing. You are on the right track if you can clearly and easily answer the question,’ what is a hypothesis?’.

A research hypothesis, also called a scientific hypothesis, is a statement about the expected outcome of a scientific study, for instance, a dissertation or thesis. For a hypothesis to be a genuine research hypothesis, this statement needs to have three attributes

  • Specificity
  • testability
  • falsifiability

Tips for writing a good hypothesis

If you are already in the know on how to write a hypothesis, keep the following tips in mind

  • Don’t choose your topic randomly. It should be a topic that fascinates you
  • Keep it clear and precise
  • Use your research to guide you
  • Clearly define all your variables
  • Write it as an if-then statement, i.e., If this, then that is the expected result.

Attributes of a good hypothesis

You are done with learning how to write a hypothesis, right? The next challenge is how to tell whether your hypothesis is of quality and good standard. A good hypothesis possesses the following remarkable attributes

  1. Prediction power.

A good hypothesis is a guide for research activity due to the power of prediction. It not only clears the present problematic issues but also predicts the future.

  1. Close to observable things

Your hypothesis must have contact with observable things. Those things that can’t be seen can’t be used in our formulation of a hypothesis.

  1. Simplicity

PV young once said ‘a hypothesis would be simple if a researcher has more insight towards the problem’. This means that the hypothesis should be a walk-over for every layman.

  1. Clarity

Clarity means your hypothesis should be free from ambiguous information. The terminologies you use also should be clear and acceptable to all.

  1. Testability

Are you well-versed with how to make a hypothesis? Then you must be aware that your hypothesis’ primary feature is its testability.

  1. Relevant to problem

A good hypothesis must be relevant to the issue at hand. It guides the identification and solution of a problem and hence should be in accordance with the situation.

  1. Specific

In the formulation of a hypothesis process, your hypothesis should be formulated for a particular problem. If you generalize, you end up causing a lot of confusion due to incorrect conclusions.

  1. Relevant to available techniques

If your hypothesis isn’t relevant to the available techniques, you need to go back to the first step, what is a hypothesis?. As a researcher, you must know workable techniques before the formulation of a hypothesis.

  1. Fruitful for new discoveries

According to J.S Miller, ‘A hypothesis is the best source of new knowledge; it creates new discoveries. ‘ Your hypothesis should provide further suggestions and ways of knowledge, thus featuring among the rated sources of a hypothesis.

  1. Consistency and harmony

A good hypothesis must possess internal balance and a good flow of ideas. It should be free from contradictions and conflicts. Your hypothesis should have a close relationship between variables.

Summary

From the writing of hypotheses, breakthroughs in knowledge are created. The brief statements in your hypothesis form the basis of an entire research experiment. Therefore, a flaw in the formulation of a hypothesis may ruin the design of a whole experiment.

Writing a hypothesis can be tricky, especially without checking how to write a hypothesis manual if you are a young adult at the epiphany of life and need to have some queries answered. Formulate a hypothesis and try proving it to the world.