NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

Introduction

This essay describes the disease that is highlighted in the scenario of the 11-year old boy. In the scenario, the boy complains of wheezing and difficulty “getting enough air.” These symptoms especially increase when the boy is exercising, and there is an improvement when the activity stops. The mother suggests that the boy is allergic to cat dander, and since the next-door neighbor started sheltering cats, the symptoms have worsened even when the boy is at rest. Auscultation showed wheezes on forced expiration throughout all lung fields. This study will analyze the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes of the diseases that are presented in the case study NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis.

The disease is likely a result of the blocking of the airways in the lungs. The blockage may be a result of narrowing, swelling, or production of extra mucus in the lungs. When this happens, the space for passing air is constricted, making a person force the passage of air, struggle to breathe, and this ends up producing the wheezing sound. The problem may be aggravated by the cat dander, a situation the mother says that the boy is allergic to. In this case, the inner walls of the lungs’ airways contain mucosal cells that produce mucus to act as a protective system against the foreign matters in the lungs. In the case there is dander from the cats in the air, these are tiny pieces of dead skin, the boy may inhale them and invoke a reaction that makes antigen-presenting cells in the airways to make extra mucus (McCance & Huether, 2019). As a result, the mucus further blocks the airways leading the boy to struggle to breathe and thus wheezing sound.

In genetics, children who have been born in families with cases of allergic asthma have had a high likelihood of developing the same conditions. According to research, certain gene variations that change the encoding of epithelial cell-derived cytokines like interleukin-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin are involved in the pathogenesis of allergies (Min, 2010). These gene variations are inherited from parent to child, and thus the family history of the condition increases the risk of developing this condition. Other gene variations in the ORMDL3 and GSDML genes that are also hereditary are associated with early-onset of the condition NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis.

The other factor that may affect the propensity to develop the condition is race and ethnicity. According to studies, some races are less exposed to allergies and asthma more than others. The chance of developing such conditions varies dramatically based on the ethnicity and race of an individual. For example, Caucasians are found to have the highest rate of allergies that are about three times more than the Asians from presented with the lowest rate (Ortiz & Barnes , 2015).

In this case, the stimulus could include exercise activities and exposure to cat dander. In exercise activities, the body requires more oxygen than when the person is stationary. Therefore, the heightened oxygen requirement is faced with narrowed or swollen airways making the boy breathe hard to supply more oxygen. In the case of cat dander, they stimulate a reaction that produces more mucus that ends up blocking the airways NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis.

Conclusion

From the analysis, the boy is suffering from asthma that is worsened by the allergy to cat dander. The physiology of the problem involved narrowed or swollen airways in the lungs. The extra mucus may also block the airways causing heavy breathing and wheezing sound. Genetic factors could have played a role in predisposing the child to a hereditary condition NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis.

References

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. New York: Elsevier.

Min, Y.-G. (2010). The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res., 65-76.

Ortiz, R. A., & Barnes , K. C. (2015). Genetics of Allergic Diseases. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am, 19-44.

Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.

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An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
By Day 7 of Week 2

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

 

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examining the patient symptoms presented in the case study. Be sure to address the following:

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.

28 (28%) – 30 (30%)

The response accurately and thoroughly describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed reasons, with explanation for the symptoms supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

25 (25%) – 27 (27%)

The response describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate reasons, with explanation for the symptoms supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

23 (23%) – 24 (24%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague or inaccurate.

The response includes reasons for the symptoms, with explanations that are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.

(0%) – 22 (22%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague and inaccurate, or the description is missing.

The response does not include reasons for the symptoms, or the explanations are vague or based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.

Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
23 (23%) – 25 (25%)
The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis.
20 (20%) – 22 (22%)
The response includes an accurate analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
18 (18%) – 19 (19%)
The response includes a vague or inaccurate analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
(0%) – 17 (17%)
The response includes a vague or inaccurate analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease is missing.
Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
28 (28%) – 30 (30%)
The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
25 (25%) – 27 (27%)
The response includes an accurate explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
23 (23%) – 24 (24%)
The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
(0%) – 17 (17%)
The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.

(3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

(0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English Writing Standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
(3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
(0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.
(3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.
(0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Total Points: 100