Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples

Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples 

Psychotherapy and Biology

Before the question of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis, we must first understand what psychotherapy means. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. Psychotherapy is “any alteration in an individual’s interpersonal environment, relationships, or life situation brought about especially by a qualified therapist and intended to have the effect of alleviating symptoms of mental or emotional disturbance” (Merriam-Webster, 2018).


There is an increasing consensus with evidence provided by neuroscience, psychology, and the cognitive sciences the psychotherapy does have a biological basis (Prosser, Helfer, & Leucht, 2016). The combination of these three sciences developed the free-energy principle which acknowledges that the environments we inhabit are complex and ever changing and the brain must constantly adapt to these changes (Prosser, Helfer, & Leuch, 2016). The free-energy framework claims that the brain attempts to adapt to the changing environment by minimizing prediction error, and by doing this the brain changes how the structure of the environment is encoded in the brain sometimes causing mental disorders (Prosser, Helfer, & Leucht, 2016).

Psychotherapy has also been shown to change activity levels in the prefrontal cortex. According to a UCLA study on depression people with this condition had abnormally high activity in the prefrontal cortex (Deen, 2015). The researchers found that the patients who participated in interpersonal therapy had a decrease in prefrontal cortex activity (Deen, 2015). The author continues with a study preformed in the Netherlands with individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It was found the people with CFS have a decrease in the gray matter in the brain but after several sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy there was a significant increase in gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex (Deen, 2015).

Influences on Psychotherapy Treatment

There are many factors that influence a person’s value of psychotherapy including socioeconomic status, race and racial beliefs, racial match, and religious factors. With many factors potentially influencing the clients perspective of psychotherapy it is important that the practitioner become culturally competent. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples.

Racial factors can hinder quality care for the mental health patient. In some studies racial match of clients can be associated with an increase in the utilization of mental health services and promote favorable outcomes (Meyer & Zane, 2013, p. 3). The increase in more favorable outcomes could be because the ethnic minority clients may view ethnically similar psychotherapists as a more credible source of help because the assume a shared culture or values (Meyer & Zane, 2013, p. 3).

As stated before, there are many factors that can influence the value a person placed on psychotherapy, even the words used can increase the value a client places on therapy. Regarding the Navajo and psychotherapy, they see it as a practice pertaining to illness and healing and the terminology used becomes important (Lewis-Fernández, 2011, p. 5). When the word belief is applied to aspects of therapy it carries the connotation of falsehood, instead of saying what is your belief on mental illness and psych therapy one should use the terms values, attitudes on, view, but never beliefs (Lewis-Fernández, 2011, p. 6). Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples In this example of culture and how it influences psychotherapy it would be very important to be culturally competent in the Navajo culture because just the verbiage used could alter the outcome of psychotherapy.


Deen, S. (2015). How Psychotherapy Changes the Brain. American Psychiatric Association .

Lewis-Fernández, R. (2011). Commentary on “Elements of Psychotherapy in Navaho Religion”: A Perspective from Contemporary Cultural Psychiatry. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 74(4), 293-300. doi:10.1521/psyc.2011.74.4.293

Merriam-Webster. (2018, February 24). PSYCHOTHERAPY. Retrieved from

Meyer, O. L., & Zane, N. (2013). THE INFLUENCE OF RACE AND ETHNICITY IN CLIENTS’ EXPERIENCES OF MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(7), 884-901. doi:10.1002/jcop.21580

Prosser, A., Helfer, B., & Leucht, S. (2016). Biological v. psychosocial treatments: A myth about pharmacotherapy v. psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(04), 309-311. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.115.178368. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples.


Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples 2

Explanation of Whether Psychotherapy Has a Biological Basis

Practicing as a psychiatric mental health practitioner is not a profession that is geared towards implementing direct care for people to provide immediate recovery (Holttum, 2014). Yet, it is a profession that is recovery-focused and involves taking the time to learn about people, believing in their strengths, while supporting their personal recovery, goals, and endeavors opposed to focusing on their problems (Holttum, 2014). Thus, the avenue by which this is done is through psychotherapy (Holttum, 2014). According to Wheeler (2014), there are various psychotherapy approaches that may be used as a psychological intervention for people with mental illness. Additionally, psychotherapy has been proven to have a biological basis similar to the biological treatment that may be seen through the use of medications (Aboujaoude, 2009). For example, Aboujaoude (2009) explains how evidence has proven through brain imaging research that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) produces alterations in the brain that is similar to the changes that are produced by psychotropic medications. Hence, this evidence proves that psychological interventions can modify an individual’s symptoms (Aboujaoude, 2009). An example of this can be seen in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with OCD present with neuronal hyperactivity that is measured by an increased rate of glucose metabolism that can be observed on a positron emission tomography (PET), particularly in the caudate nucleus region of the brain (Aboujaoude, 2009). Thus, psychotropic medications such as Prozac or psychotherapy treatments such as CBT have been proven to reduce the rate of glucose metabolism and improve OCD symptoms (Aboujaoude, 2009). Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. Hence, giving CBT the appearance of working as a biological treatment like psychotropic medications (Aboujaoude, 2009).

Explanation of How Culture, Religion & Socioeconomics Influence the Perspective of the Value of Psychotherapy Treatments


            In order to effectively diagnose and treat clients with mental illness, the mental health practitioner would need to consider the client’s culture, religion, and socioeconomic influences to determine how to appropriately provide psychotherapy treatments (Wheeler, 2014). Although it is not imperative to have a vast knowledge base regarding numerous cultures, practitioners should have a working knowledge of the client’s background and research their culture (Wheeler, 2014). Making cultural generalizations will not be helpful when it comes to distinguishing how to work specifically with diverse individuals (Wheeler, 2014). Thus, to be effective, mental health care professionals should be willing and open to ask genuine questions pertaining to their client’s culture while admitting to ignorance and allowing teaching moments by their patients (Wheeler, 2014). When practitioners acknowledge that they may make mistakes regarding their client’s culture and may need to be corrected at times, it will decrease the power imbalance in the client-practitioner relationship while strengthening the therapeutic connection and alliance (Wheeler, 2014). In addition, practitioners should assess his/her own cultural competency by identifying personal prejudices and biases towards diverse cultures and assessing their knowledge of the client’s cultural-bound illnesses, and worldviews (Wheeler, 2014). Also, mental health professionals should evaluate their desire for being culturally competent as well as evaluating their ability and skill to conduct cultural assessments and culturally based physical exams (Wheeler, 2014). According to Wheeler (2014), an individual’s culture has the tendency to shape their judgments, attributions, and perceptions. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. Therefore, when mental health practitioners have patients from different cultural backgrounds they should inquire how the client feels about working with them which may open up dialogue concerning any issues that could influence the value of psychotherapy treatment (Wheeler, 2014).


On the other hand, religion may influence one’s perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments by recognizing how its theme may provide both harmony and balance in the client’s life or the very opposite (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Some practitioners have found that complexities may occur when religion is addressed during psychotherapy due to the diverse concepts pertaining to spirituality and religion (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Needless to say, mental health professionals should have a high quality of skills, knowledge, and exhibit ethical professionalism when integrating religious and spiritual aspects of the client’s life during psychotherapy treatment (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Thus, collecting and aligning information based on the patient’s values and beliefs will be a beneficial tool during the therapeutic process (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). For example, practitioners should identify the relevance of whether religion or spiritual variances play a role in the clinical traits presented, as well as researching the role that religion plays in the client’s belief system (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). The representations of God along with religious ideals should also be identified to determine its relevance and clinically approached (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). According to Prieto, Simao, and Nasello (2007) adding religious or spiritual problems as a diagnostic category in the DSM-IV acknowledges how both spiritual and religious principles can be the center of psychotherapy treatment Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. However, practitioners must be careful not to influence their clients with their own personal religious, moral, or political values for by doing so will not only violate the therapeutic contract but will also reduce the client’s freedom and the therapist’s neutrality (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007).


An individual’s socioeconomic status can highly influence the perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments. For example, Kim and Cardemil (2012) explain how psychotherapy processes are generally grounded in a middle-class worldview and can fail to meet the needs of clients from a lower socioeconomic class. Kim & Cardemil (2012) further explicate how research has shown that people from low-income backgrounds are not as likely to seek mental health services as higher socioeconomic classes would. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples Thus, when individuals with low-income do seek mental health services they are less likely to receive interventions that are evidence-based and more likely to discontinue services prematurely (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Other factors that affect the continuity of mental health services for low-income individuals might include lack of transportation, child care, cultural diversities, and mistrust in the mental health care system (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). On the other hand, mental health practitioners may also face psychological barriers of their own when working with clients from a lower socioeconomic class that can affect the client’s treatment (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Barriers might include feeling overwhelmed by their client’s despondent circumstances, negative stereotypes, and negative idealizations of individuals with low-income (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Thus, such attitudes can create blind spots in providing adequate care leading to the assumption that psychotherapy would not be beneficial for this class (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples Therefore, in order to overcome such barriers, mental health professionals will need to devote explicit attention to social class issues during the psychotherapy process (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). This will require significant self-reflection, open acknowledgment of differences, and commitment to connect with the discomfort one might feel when working with clients that present diverse issues that are not commonly familiar to the mental health professional (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Therefore, to attend to the issues of social class mental health professionals will need to assess the client’s social class and incorporate social class issues into the psychotherapy process (Kim & Cardemil, 2012).



Aboujaoude, E. (2009).  The biology of psychotherapy: Therapy is a biological treatment.

Retrieved on August 23, 2018, from

Holttum, S. (2014). When bad things happen our brains change but psychotherapy and support

can help the recovery of our brains and our lives. Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 18(2), 52–58. doi:10.1108/MHSI-02-2014-0006

Kim, S., & Cardemil, E. (2012). Effective psychotherapy with low-income clients: The

importance of attending to social class. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy42(1),


Prieto, J.F.P., Simao, M. J. P., S., & Nasello, A. G. (2007). Spirituality, religiousness and

psychotherapy. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry,34(1), 136-145. doi:10.1590/S0101-60832007000700017

Wheeler, K. (Eds.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-

to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.


Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples  response

I enjoyed reading your post! I agree that in order to implement effective psychotherapy treatment the client’s culture, socioeconomic status, beliefs, values, and religion should be acknowledged and integrated into their treatment. Wadsworth (2012) explains the importance of identifying social inequality, the tension associated with living in poverty, and attending to the vigorous external and societal circumstances that impact the client’s mental health during psychotherapy Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. Thus, helping clients to attain insight into the difficulties they are experiencing concerning poverty-related stress will involve discussions pertaining to developing skills for coping with their stress, opposed to helping them to be happy with living in poverty (Wadsworth, 2012). As a result, clients can discover how to make positive changes that will enable them and their families to further progress (Wadsworth, 2012).

Also, I especially agree with the fact that often times people from lower socioeconomic classes may not have access to receiving proper psychotherapy treatments due to the lack of resources (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). According to Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, and Lewin (2017) some individuals living in poverty may be influenced psychologically which may lead to mental health issues. In addition, a vast majority of individuals with mental health issues are not receiving the mental health services that they need (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). For example, it has been reported that less that 15 percent of children living in poverty, in need of mental health care, receive mental health services with fewer children completing their treatment (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Wadsworth (2012) explains how the stressors that are shaped and exacerbated through living in poverty may often lead to compromised mental health. There are many barriers that lead to the lack of mental health treatment that include lack of insurance, long distances to travel, parental fears that their children will be removed from their home due to low-income status (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Also, mental health clinic hours are often provided during the day and individuals working in low-wage jobs may not present the flexibility to attend appointments on a weekly basis (Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Therefore, to improve low-income client’s access to mental health care some believe that integrating mental health services into primary care settings will enable clients to receive the well-rounded care they need (Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. However, in order to implement this, modifications in policies, healthcare financing, community service system infrastructure, provider practices, clinical workflow, and workforce development would need to take place (Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017).



Hodgkinson, S., Godoy, L., Beers, L. S., & Lewin, A. (2017). Improving Mental Health Access

for Low-Income Children and Families in the Primary Care Setting. Pediatrics139(1), doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1175

Wadsworth, M. (2012). Working with Low-income Families: Lessons Learned from Basic and

Applied Research on Coping with Poverty-related Stress. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy42(1), 17. doi:10.1007/s10879-011-9192-2



Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples  response

I enjoyed reading your post. You presented very interesting facts on how psychotherapy can be presented as a biological process. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples Moreover, I agree with what you said regarding the occurrence of bodily chemicals being produced in a person’s body as a direct result of psychotherapy. Gottschalk (1990) explains how the biological process of learning and memory can create temporary or permanent alterations in the brain’s chemistry due to psychotherapy. In addition, psychological stress can hasten specific cerebral and systemic biochemical modifications that will retain emotionally tinged events and stimulate an increase of cerebral glucose metabolism that is localized to that region (Gottschalk, 1990). Porterfield (2017) explicates how researchers have determined that there are numerous neurochemicals and physiological occurrences that exhibit three fundamental pillars of psychotherapy which include empathy, fear extinction, and attachment. Some of these chemicals might include vasopressin, arginine, oxytocin, or the mu-opioid receptors which are all vital when it comes to managing attachment (Porterfield, 2017).



Gottschalk, L. A. (1990). The psychotherapies in the context of new developments in the

neurosciences and biological psychiatry. American Journal of Psychotherapy44(3), 321-339.

Porterfield, A. (2017). Psychotherapy revival: Can “talk” therapy change our brains and genes? Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples.

Genetic Literacy Project, Retrieved on August 30, 2018, from



Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples 3

Psychotherapy treatments are influenced by culture, religion, and socioeconomics in various ways individual patient belief in the values. According to some psychologists, they debate that some different factors can influence the therapy such as culture sensitivity which can integrate with the treatment processes and also some treatments can be included in certain individual cultural setups due to the outcomes such as expectations, identity, and various cultural ways that can assist in providing the right treatment for the individual client. According to Howie, Prasad & Kristel, (2013), those that support the multi-cultural design debate that the psychological actions are easily distinguishable cultural background not universal for everyone.  Individual culture has its specific way of looking at different things for example some cultures belief that hallucinations is a way of communicating with those in the spiritual world and they are highly respected instead of looking at them like they have mentally issues or been crazy.

Some group of people in certain religion belief that they have some power to improve mental health, relationship, and physical health in comparing with those that are non-religious. Religion is also known to be one of the factors that help to stabilize psychological health (Aschenbrenner, & Venable, 2009) Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples. Sometimes individual likes to go to a therapist that has the same religion for therapy to help in well-being of a mental problem the person has and in other hand there are individuals who like to opt in attending any particular therapist, so the individual can get neutral treatment of any psychological condition that they have.

Usually individual with healthy life are more concerned about their mental health so they go for checkups frequently to make sure that they have a healthy life and maintain it. These people make sure that they eat food rich in nutrients to help them improve psychological health and also people that are rich does not take life for granted because they know that they will pay more to maintain a healthy life, so they make sure they eat healthy food. But people that are not rich are not really concerned about their mental health due to no money to take care of themselves and having no resources. In the community today, the poor people are not able to get the appropriate education that they need and does not know the importance of psychotherapy treatments.


Aschenbrenner, D. S., & Venable, S. J. (2009). Drug therapy in nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Howie, P., Prasad, S., & Kristel, J. (2013). Using art therapy with diverse populations: Crossing cultures and abilities.

Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples 4

Biological basis of Psychotherapy

Before we can determine whether there is a biological basis of psychotherapy, it is important to start with a foundation based on an understanding of what psychotherapy means by definition.  Psychotherapy is defined as a process in which psychological problems are treated through communication and relationship factors between an individual and a trained mental health professional ( Herkov, 2016).  The success of psychotherapy is based on effective communication between therapist and client centered on therapeutic principles, structure, and technique (2016).

There has been a number of evidence based principles provided by neuroscience, psychology, and the cognitive sciences that suggest psychotherapy does have a biological basis (Prosser et al, 2016) Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples.  Principles such as  the free-energy principle is an example of how psychotherapy is based on biological basis.  For instance, the free-energy principle suggests that due to the complexity and variation of the environment, the brain has to constantly adapt by minimizing prediction error, which in turn can sometimes cause mental disorders (Prosser et al, 2016).

 Influences that vary value of psychotherapy treatment

There are various factors that can influence the client’s value or perspective on the importance of psychotherapy such as one’s culture and religion.  These various factors must be acknowledged and addressed by the health care professional prior and during treatment. For instance psychotherapy treatment can be influenced by one’s culture; people belonging to an ethnic group who report discrimination or prejudice are less likely to seek mental health treatment (Jang et al, 2009).  For instance, in a study of 426 Korean Americans over the age of 60 report feeling depression; however, about 71% reported it being a sign of weakness and 14% indicated seeking help would bring family shame (2009).  Another factor that may influence psychotherapy treatment is religion.  Religion and spirituality have recently been discovered as an important component and motivation in people’s lives when pertaining to psychotherapy, which in  turn affects a person’s wellbeing and their belief that they will have a positive outcome (Mizock et al, 2012).  According to several studies, 30-90% of people have reported that the spirituality to be a driven force and an important component in their recovery from mental illnesses (2012).  In recent years they have found many benefits in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia using psychotherapy and religion and spirituality.


Herkov, M. (2016). What is Psychotherapy? Retrieved from

Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D., & Okazaki, S. (2009). Attitudes of older Korean Americans toward mental health services. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55:616-620. Retrieved from Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples

Mizock, L., Millner, U., & Russinova, Z. (2012) Spiritual and Religious Issues in Psychotherapy with Schizophrenia: Cultural Implications and Implementation. Retrieved from

Prosser, A., Helfer, B., & Leucht, S. (2016). Biological vs. psychological treatments. A myth about pharmacotherapy vs. psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry. 208(4)., 309-311. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.115.178368

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Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples 5

Discussion Week # 1

Initial Post.


The biological basis of psychotherapy treatments has been debatable, but with the advent of advanced neuro health technology, there is ample evidence that there is synergistic benefits when certain external factors such as age, culture, religion, socioeconomics and environmental  are linked with cognitive areas of the brain when psychotherapy is applied. Wheeler (2014), posits that “psychotherapy mediates the reintegration and connection of neural networks that have become mal adaptively linked due to adverse life events facilitating healing of the brain” (p.53). The author bases this assessment by the use of evidence based neurophysiological research and theory that emphasizes that “healing and Integration” is as a result of therapeutic relationship (p.53).

Fournier and Price (2014) in their research work point out that the complexities that characterize most patients create a variant responses in treatment. In this vein, they posit that “no psychotherapeutic intervention works equally well for all patients, and the mechanisms through which psychotherapy reduces symptoms and enhances functioning remain difficult to specify”. This underscores the fact that patient respond to treatments differently but they insist on evidence based research in biologic neuro imaging changes with patients who receive psychotherapy. The use of a two-fold examinations to determine “treatment outcome prediction” and “treatment mechanism” warrant more research in the future according to the authors.

The adaptability of the brain can be enhanced by its malleability and with reinforcements from psychotherapy. This brain flexibility is better explained by Holttum (2014), with the illustration of the brain changes in some humans and animals who have suffered severe stressful situations to appoint that this “gene-expression has been altered by the brain switching it on or off thus enhancing self-coping methods when encountered with more stressful situation. Holttum (2014) emphasizes on the role of psychotherapists as guides to recovery. In his conclusion, Holttum points out the works Morrison et al (2014). He states “Morrison et al. (2014) have added to the evidence that cognitive therapy can help, and it should be made routinely available to people diagnosed with psychotic conditions. People should be able to choose not to take harmful medications on a long-term basis”.

The influence of culture, religion, and socio economics factors can either enhance or mar psychotherapeutic treatments. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples In a changing world where there is a mosaic clinical picture, care must be taken in psychotherapeutic approach. Psychotherapists must be versed with cultural competence. Wheeler (2014) succinctly underscores this cultural competence in awareness in our biases, skill in conducting cultural assessments, knowledge about the patient’s worldview, encounters with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds and the desire to be culturally competent (p. 20). These are fundamental questions that can enhance therapy especially with a diverse clientele in today’s healthcare milieu. Any lack of knowledge in the patient can blur the picture of the patient’s diagnosis, making the therapy ineffective. The American Nurses Association (2014) remains guide in such domain in guiding the scope of practice in a free unbiased approach taking into consideration the background of the patient.

In summary, the author in the Laureate Education (Producer). (2015e)  clearly points out the Dodo bird conjecture which describes the variant approaches of Psychotherapy as a win-win situation. In this light, the author posits that all forms of psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for the patient based on the positive outcomes as research evidence shows, and also on the dynamic presentation of patients. The psychotherapist must have an unbiased view and a holistic approach with considerations to culture, religion, and socio economics backgrounds to enhance a better patient outcome.



American Nurses Association. (2014). Psychiatric-mental health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Standard 1 “Assessment” (pages 44 & 45)


Fournier, J.C. & Price, R.B. (2014). Psychotherapy and neuroimaging. Psychotherapy: New    evidence and new approaches, 12(3), 290-298.


Holttum, S. (2014). When bad things happen our brains change but psychotherapy and support can help the recovery of our brains and our lives. Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 18(2), 52–58. doi:10.1108/MHSI-02-2014-0006

Laureate Education (Producer). (2015e). Therapies are helpful: Dodo bird conjecture [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Wheeler, K. (Eds.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Nurs 6640 week 1 discussion – biological basis of psychotherapy treatments essay examples