Benchmark – Personality Research Paper
|Personality Research Essay Paper|
Choose a topic, from your textbook, relevant to Personality Psychology (if it is not in your textbook make sure to get instructor approval, early).
In 2,000-2,500-words develop a position paper in which you:
- Relate your chosen topic to personality development.
- You must have a well-developed thesis and strong argumentation to support your thesis.
- Your paper should be steeped in research with little filler or non-supported conclusions.
- Use of first person is not allowed. Personality Research Essay Paper.
- Your paper must conform to APA writing standards including the use of APA formatted in-text citations from research and credible sources on the Internet to support your position.
- Your paper must include eight to ten scholarly sources. About.com, SimplyPsychology, VeryWellMind, and Wikipedia are not considered scholarly sources.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Personality Research Essay Paper
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competency.
BS Psychology, No Emphasis
BS Psychology, Emphasis in Performance and Sport Psychology
1.2 Apply theoretical perspectives in psychology.
Topic 7 Rubric: Benchmark – Personality Research Paper
The topic of self-esteem has been examined widely in the field of psychology. According
to Bojanić et al. (2019), self-esteem is considered to be an important disposition that an
individual possesses. Furthermore, self-esteem influences and represents people’s judgment
about their own value. As a result, it is a concept that is widely analyzed when exploring the
mental wellbeing of an individual. Self-esteem can also be described as the set of qualities that
an individual observes within themselves (Labored et al., 2016). In this regard, it is a concept
that represents a person’s views and beliefs about self-importance and values. Those who value
their traits tend to have high self-esteem compared to their counterparts who have a negative
perception of their abilities. It is also worth stating that self-esteem is neither an inherent nor
hereditary quality. Instead, it is normally developed over the lifespan of a person and is
influenced by other people. Bojanić et al. (2019) further noted that self-esteem could affect a
person’s value systems, memory, interpretation of events, and choice of friends. Therefore, selfesteem
has a positive impact on individual and group goal achievement.
Self-Esteem, Individual, and Group Goal Achievement Personality Research Essay Paper
Aspects of personality traits and self- esteem distinguish athletes from non-athletes, as
evident in results from previous studies. Bojanić et al. (2019), for instance, examined the role of
self-esteem in differentiating active sports participants and other athletes or non-athletes. The
study entailed conducting a meta-analysis review to examine personality differences between
those who engaged in sports and those who did not. The authors found out that individuals who
participated in high-risk sporting activities exhibited greater levels of extraversion compared to
those who did not engage in such sports. Furthermore, high-risk sports were associated with a
high level of impulsiveness among the players (Bojanić et al., 2019). Further, these athletes
depicted reduced degrees of neuroticism and sensitivity to punishment relative to non-athletes. In
a comparison of athletes and non-athletes, the research findings signified higher extraversion and
emotional stability levels for the former group (Bojanić et al., 2019). The study further revealed
that people who took part in team sports had higher self-esteem compared to the individuals who
participated in combat sport. Bojanić et al. (2019) noted that the trend might be linked to the fact
that self-esteem is normally dependent on social-influence. Therefore, the people in group sports
were more likely to receive support from their teammates compared to the individual sport’s
participants. Another possible explanation was the struggles that individual sportspeople go
through to maintain a positive body image. Finally, Bojanić et al. (2019) found out that
neuroticism was higher among people who took part in team sports than among their
counterparts in combat sports. The outcomes were based on the fact that combat sports require a
greater sense of deep connection and self-control compared to team sports. Personality Research Essay Paper
Another study by Labored et al. (2016) was devoted to the analysis of differences among
the personality traits of athletes depending on the type of sports they took part in. The researchers
used a cross-sectional sampling approach to show that athletes had higher scores for positive
personality-trait-like individual differences compared to non-athletes. Moreover, athletes from
individual sports showed higher scores in positive personality-trait than athletes participating in
team sports (Labored et al., 2016). The study findings highlighted the linkage between positive
personality-trait-like individual differences and participation in sporting activities (Labored et al.,
2016). The results reveal that self-esteem influences the way people participated in sporting
activities. Besides, it influences performance in both individual and team sport. It implies that
when people participate in specific sports or engage in distinct sports, they are likely to develop a
specific personality associated with that kind of activity.
People who have high self-esteem may not require encouragement from other people to
maintain positive self-view. In contrast, those with low self-esteem may become defensive and
seek support from other people to have a positive self-image (Wesson & Derrer-Rendall, 2011).
It is also imperative to state that the lack of self-esteem has been linked to high chances of selfdoubt
and insecurities. In such cases, the person may react negatively to any criticism that they
receive. Furthermore, a person with low self-esteem requires positive feedback from those
around him to develop a feeling of self-confidence (Wesson & Derrer-Rendall, 2011). The need
for constant praise and positive feedback can also lead to arrogant behavior, hostility, and
boastfulness. Since self-esteem has a positive and significant correlation with self-efficacy and
self-confidence, it can affect performance in a wide range of areas and activities such as tests and
sports. Those who believe in their abilities and skills will strive to perform better and maintain a
positive self-image. Individuals with low self-esteem, on the other hand, may lack confidence
and struggle to perform at optimal levels. Personality Research Essay Paper
Self Esteem and High Life Demands
It is also imperative to state that high life demands can affect a person’s self-esteem.
Ferradás et al. (2019) conducted a study to explore the need for self-worth among university
students. As per the authors, the fear of failure and the demands of academia often lead some
students to focus on enhancing their personal worth through various strategies like defensive
pessimism and self-handicapping. For some students, focus rests on developing high levels of
motivation for learning, while others perceive the failure of academic performance to be
attributed to low self-esteem. Ferradás et al. (2019) carried out a study to examine the link
between motivational profiles and self-esteem among the students. Also, the study was meant to
help identify profile differences that could be linked to the use of defensive pessimism and selfhandicapping
strategies. The results revealed that there was a considerable connection between
low self-esteem and medium performance-avoidance goals. Furthermore, the authors stated that
students with low self-esteem were likely to use self-protection strategies. Finally, the study
revealed that self-handicapping and defensive pessimism were used by students with low selfesteem
for their survival in the academic field.
Previous studies have also revealed that there is a critical link between academic
performance and students’ beliefs about their abilities (Wesson & Derrer-Rendall, 2011).
Furthermore, the perceived difficulty of tasks and goal-setting efforts can affect how learners
perform in school. Wesson and Derrer-Rendall (2011) also conducted a study to examine how
self-beliefs of students affected goal achievement. The researchers reported that the practice of
allowing students to direct their attention toward a set goal could improve academic
performance. The concept of goal-setting occurs as a motivational technique that enhances
academic achievement. In this regard, several factors are considered to ensure that goal-setting
becomes effective in increasing positive performance (Wesson & Derrer-Rendall, 2011). These
include setting clear and specific objectives, which can be attained within a given timeframe.
Wesson and Derrer-Rendall (2011) also reported that when students have a high level of
awareness about their academic abilities, they are more likely to set appropriate goals and
perform better in class. However, the enhanced performance was commonly reported in cases
where the students had moderate confidence. Wesson and Derrer-Rendall (2011) further stated
that it normally takes self-belief and assurance for students to accomplish academic goals.
However, it is also important for teachers to assist students in setting realistic goals and
developing self-belief to perform better. Personality Research Essay Paper
The experiences of a person in life may be a significant source of self-esteem. In the early
years of life, parents play a critical role in shaping the beliefs of their children and assisting them
to have a positive self-image (Akelaitis & Malinauskas, 2018). The love and support from the
parents may help the child to have a stable sense of being appreciated and cared for by the
members of the society. The feelings are likely to affect the way a person deals with life demands
and challenges. In particular, those with high self-esteem may be determined to deal with the
problems that they face in life effectively to maintain a positive self-image. It is also worth
stating that the level of self-esteem may affect how a person approaches and manages life
demands (Wesson & Derrer-Rendall, 2011; Bojanić et al., 2019). People with high self-esteem
may be willing to take risks to develop appropriate solutions to the challenges that they face.
Furthermore, such individuals may be able to remain confident and focused even as they strive to
deal with the demanding nature of their work, assignments, or projects.
Self-Esteem and Emotions
Self-esteem can affect how people manage and control their emotions. Akelaitis and
Malinauskas (2018) conducted a study to examine the emotional management skills among
people who took part in the team and individual sports. The researchers noted that athletes need
to learn how to manage their emotions and those of their teammates to improve performance and
succeed in sports (Akelaitis & Malinauskas, 2018). Akelaitis and Malinauskas (2018) further
reported that there is a significant correlation between high emotional aptitudes implying
improved performance in sports. From the findings, the researchers also concluded that male
athletes who engage in team sports have greater emotional skills compared to athletes who take
part in individual sports. The trend was linked to the fact that team sports provide athletes with
an opportunity to interact with teammates and get continuous support from them. Furthermore,
teammates can work together to find solutions to various challenges and issues that affect their
performance. In the process, they become confident in their abilities and strive to achieve the
best possible results. Personality Research Essay Paper
It is imperative to state that self-esteem may be affected by the perceived risk of fear.
Furthermore, a person’s level of self-esteem may depend on the fear of embarrassment, defeat,
and shame. In such instances, people strive to show defensive traits and avoid making decisions
that will lead to negative results (Akelaitis & Malinauskas, 2018). Even when the person may
show self-confidence outwardly, he or she still fears the possibility of failure or experiencing a
negative event. Some people may end up blaming others for protecting their self-image in
instances where they feel threatened by the situation in question (Akelaitis & Malinauskas,
2018). Narcissism also remains one of the major traits that an individual mat demonstrates
because of low self-esteem and the perceived risk of failure (Bojanić et al., 2019). The
narcissistic individuals strive to prove that they are valuable people and productive members of
society. Others focus on hiding their faults and stopping the feeling of being ashamed of failure.
The link between self-esteem and performance has also been examined by focusing on
the impact of emotional intelligence on how people behave and act. According to Bibi et al.
(2016), emotional intelligence is an important research topic in the field of psychology. The
concept relates to the mental ability of a person to manage emotions and enhance the thinking
process. Besides, emotional intelligence revolves around the process of understanding,
evaluating, and communicating emotions effectively. It is worth stating that emotional
intelligence affects the way people apply knowledge, assess situations, and show their feelings
towards others. Bibi et al. (2016) conducted a study to examine the connection between selfesteem
and emotional intelligence. The study findings showed that emotional intelligence is
positively correlated with self-respect for university learners. Bibi et al. (2016) also stated that
there was a positive link between emotional intelligence and self-image. Finally, the study
revealed that females were more emotionally intelligent in comparison to their male
counterparts. Despite this being the case, Bibi et al. (2016) did not find a statistically
significant gender difference in the level of self-esteem among the participants who took part
in the study. For future implications, the authors suggested that interventions can be developed
to raise the self-esteem of students, thereby having a positive impact on their emotional
intelligence (Bibi et al., 2016). Bibi et al. (2016) found that high emotional intelligent results
in high self-worth, which enables people to address their issues through forging more energetic
sensitive personalities, thereby enhancing academic performance and productivity.
People strive to enhance their self-esteem to succeed in life and perform better in
activities such as tests and sports. When individuals succeed in a sporting match, for instance,
they will naturally develop high levels of self-esteem (Wesson & Derrer-Rendall, 2011). The
trend is attributed to the fact that success helps a person to develop a positive self-image.
Besides, the person will have increased belief in his or her skills and abilities. On the other
hand, the people who fail in sporting events or tests may end up losing confidence and
questioning their abilities (Bojanić et al., 2019). Others will focus on finding the activity that
they are good at to succeed in the future. Another way through which a person can enhance
self-esteem is by building positive connections with others and maintaining relationships. The
relationships normally act as a source of positive feedback that enables a person to develop a
favorable self-image and confidence. Personality Research Essay Paper
Self-esteem has a positive impact on individual goal achievement as it promotes
emotional intelligence, leads to efforts of protecting self-worth, and distinguishes the
personality traits of individuals. The level of self-esteem depends on the nature of feelings that
people have about themselves. Those who have negative feelings about their abilities are likely
to have low self-esteem. In contrast, people who have a positive perception of themselves
normally have high self-esteem. From the foregoing discussion, it is apparent that self-esteem
affects how people perform in activities such as team sports and individual sports. Athletes
with high self-esteem strive to succeed in sports and maintain a positive self-image. Therefore,
supporting athletes to improve their self-esteem may lead to improved performance in both
individual and team sports.
Akelaitis, A. V., & Malinauskas, R. (2018). The expression of emotional skills among
individual and team sports male athletes. Pedagogics, Psychology, Medical-Biological
Problems of Physical Training and Sports, 22(2), pp. 62–67. doi:
Bibi, S., Saqlain, S., & Mussawar, B. (2016) Relationship between emotional intelligence and
self-esteem among Pakistani University students. Journal of Psychology &
Psychotherapy, 6(4), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.4172/2161-0487.1000279
Bojanić, Ž., Nedeljković, J., Šakan, D., Mitić, P. M., Milovanović, I., & Drid, P. (2019).
Personality traits and self-esteem in combat and team sports. Frontiers in
Psychology, 10(2280). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02280
Ferradás, M., Freire, C., Núñez, J. C., & Regueiro, B. (2019). Associations between profiles
of self-esteem and achievement goals and the protection of self-worth in university
students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,
16(12), 2218. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16122218
Labored, S., Guillen, F., & Mosley, E. (2016). Positive personality-trait-like individual
differences in athletes from individual- and team sports and in non-athletes.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 26, pp. 9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport2016.05.009
Wesson, C. J., & Derrer-Rendall, N. M. (2011). Self-beliefs and student goal achievement.
Psychology Teaching Review, 17(1). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ932184.pdf Personality Research Essay Paper