PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

This needs to be like a parent guide brochure covering the following areas
Signs and symptoms
Pathophysiology
How the disorder is diagnosed
Treatment options Thanks

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Pica is an eating disorder characterized by eating non-food products that do not contain significant nutritional value. E.g. paint chips, dirt, soap, paper, ash, charcoal, chalk, soil, ice, starch, clay, wool, cloth, string and hair (Hartmann & Jurilj, 2017).

Signs and Symptoms

  • Stomach pain
  • Stomach upset
  • Blood in stool
  • Bowel problems. E.g. diarrhea or constipation
  • Developmentally inappropriate ingestion of substances
  • Eating substances that are not socially normative practice or culturally supported for at least once a month
  • PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

 

Diagnosis

  • Clinical history
  • No laboratory tests
  • Anemia tests

Pica is related to: (Delaney et al., 2015)

  • Obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Micronutrient deficiency
  • Neurological conditions
  • Gastrointestinal distress

 

Pathophysiology

  • Brain damage due to poisoning. E.g. from consuming lead vanishes and paints
  • Neurological problems
  • Death
  • Gastrointestinal tract damage causing constipation, abdominal distention, nausea, ulceration
  • Deficiency of minerals and nutrients: E.g. Vitamin C and D, Zinc, Iron, Phosphorous, Calcium, Thiamin, niacin
  • Dental abnormalities e.g. tooth surface loss, abrasion, abfraction and mouth cancer. (Nayak et al., 2017)
  • Infection and parasitic infestation
  • Toxocariasis and  Ascariasis can occur from consumption of soil
  • PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

 

Treatment

  • Correction of mineral deficiencies
  • Behavioral interventions
  • Redirection of attention away from desired substances
  • Rewards for discarding non-food items
  • Physical restraint (Kennedy, Wick & Keel, 2018).

 

References

Delaney, C. B., Eddy, K. T., Hartmann, A. S., Becker, A. E., Murray, H. B., & Thomas, J. J. (2015). Pica and rumination behavior among individuals seeking treatment for eating disorders or obesity. International Journal of Eating Disorders48(2), 238-248.

Hartmann, A. S., & Jurilj, V. (2017). Pica. In Handbook of DSM-5 Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 319-332). Springer, Cham.

Kennedy, G. A., Wick, M. R., & Keel, P. K. (2018). Eating disorders in children: is avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder a feeding disorder or an eating disorder and what are the implications for treatment?. F1000Research7.

Nayak, S. V., Kini, R., Shetty, U., Rao, P. K., Kashyap, R. R., & Bhandarkar, G. (2017). Pica-an eating disorder: A report and review. Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences5(1), 82. PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay