PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example

PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example

Youngsters are viewed as a weak populace when leading exploration. As indicated by Shivayogi (2013), respectability of a populace can be characterized as a particular gathering of society with specific inconveniences that require extra consideration to secure their privileges in research. This is generally in light of the fact that they have a diminished or failure to settle on informed decisions to shield themselves from the expected or intrinsic danger that can happen in research. Youngsters, specifically, are defenseless in an examination since they don’t have the intellectual limit or development to depict the intrinsic danger to agree to partake in research (Berk, 2018). This is additionally confounded by the legitimate and social distinction in power among kids and grown-ups (Thompson, 1990) PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.
Albeit the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) has illustrated moral principles or thought in research including human subjects the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD, 2012) has given extra rules that ought to be viewed as when leading exploration with youngsters. One such rule proposes that when potential mischief is anticipated in an exploration, the analyst ought to investigate different strategies that decrease the danger of damage to assemble the data. Moreover, the scientist should acquire assent from the youngster’s folks and assuming that the kid is somewhere around seven years of age, a consent is needed from the kid (SRCD, 2012). For tYoungsters are viewed as a weak populace when leading exploration. As indicated by Shivayogi (2013), respectability of a populace can be characterized as a particular gathering of society with specific inconveniences that require extra consideration to secure their privileges in research. This is generally in light of the fact that they have a diminished or failure to settle on informed decisions to shield themselves from the expected or intrinsic danger that can happen in research. Youngsters, specifically, are defenseless in an examination since they don’t have the intellectual limit or development to depict the intrinsic danger to agree to partake in research (Berk, 2018). This is additionally confounded by the legitimate and social distinction in power among kids and grown-ups (Thompson, 1990) PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.
Albeit the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) has illustrated moral principles or thought in research including human subjects the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD, 2012) has given extra rules that ought to be viewed as when leading exploration with youngsters. One such rule proposes that when potential mischief is anticipated in an exploration, the analyst ought to investigate different strategies that decrease the danger of damage to assemble the data. Moreover, the scientist should acquire assent from the youngster’s folks and assuming that the kid is somewhere around seven years of age, a consent is needed from the kid (SRCD, 2012). For this situation, Berk (2018) declares unique translation is needed for informed assent on the grounds that kids can’t completely fathom the exploration objectives and exercises. Thus, agents ought to clarify research exercises and objectives utilizing age-fitting language to guarantee that they can comprehend. Moreover, agents should be especially cautious while clarifying classification and the youngster’s on the whole correct to end their cooperation whenever without result to the kid or their folks (Berk, 2018). Notwithstanding parental assent and the youngster’s consent, specialists should acquire endorsement from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before they can continue with the examination.
Ethical  moral rules additionally shield the right of kids to be shielded from hurt in research. These incorporate executing systems that ensure classification and secrecy to secure the personality of the members. In any case, when research techniques bring about unexpected and bothersome ramifications for kids in the examination, the specialist ought to guarantee strategies are carried out to address the potentially negative results (SCRCD, 2012) PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.

American Psychological Association. (2010a). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of


conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Berk. L. E. (2014). Development through the lifespan (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Shivayogi, P. (2013). Vulnerable population and methods for their safeguard. Perspectives in clinical research4(1), 53.

Society for Research in Child Development. (2012b). Ethical standards in research. Retrieved from http://www.srcd.org/about-us/ethical-standards-research

Thompson, R. A. (1990). Vulnerability in research: A developmental perspective on research risk. Child development61(1), 1-16 PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.

sample 2

Fortunately, the field of psychology has advanced and improved when it comes to research. Just as medicine has a code of ethics and standards to guide practice, so too does psychology. The American Psychological Association has a code of ethics and guiding principles to ensure ethical research and practices. There are also ethics and standards in developmental psychology that help ensure populations of humans are also protected.  According to (Fisher and Vacanti- Shova, 2012), being ethically aware and ethically committed are only the beginning of morally sound decision-making. The ethics outlined in developmental psychology play a vital role in protecting populations of potential research participants. One such population is children.

Children are considered a vulnerable population due to their decision-making capacity. The ethics in developmental psychology have set forth guidelines to help protect children participating in research while not ignoring the child’s willingness to be a participant. First to be considered is parental consent. While considering cultural and legal matters regarding guardianship, the researcher must obtain parental/guardian consent for participation (Society for Research in Child Development [ SRCD],2012b).  There are some exemptions to this. The research should be aware of the exemptions such as emancipated minors, homeless, or jeopardizing the child’s safety (SRCD, 2012b). At the same time, permission is needed for child participation under most circumstances, informed consent, and authorization. Assent and informed consent entail the child being told what the research involves based on their cognitive ability to understand (SRCD, 2012b). It is important to note that if the child does not want to participate, it is not legally binding for the researcher but should be considered ethically binding (SRCD, 2012b). Voluntariness states that researchers respect the right to self-determination of all ages (SRCD, 2012b). In other words, regardless of age, a person should have the right to decide to participate. While the above-mentioned ethical standards help protect children, it is also vital that the general principles of developmental psychology be applied. Before starting the research, the principles of benevolence/ nonmaleficence, respecting dignity, equity, and scientific integrity should be considered and enacted when dealing with children. The goal of developmental psychology research is to better the lives of people. If the principles and standards are not applied and adhered to, we can end up with inaccurate and unreliable data that does not benefit society PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.

References

American Psychological Association. (2010a). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of

conduct with the 2010 amendments. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Fisher, C. B., & Vacanti-Shova, K. (2012). The responsible conduct of psychological research:

An overview of ethical principles, APA ethics code standards, and federal regulations. In S. J.

Society for Research in Child Development. (2012b). Ethical standards in research. Retrieved

from http://www.srcd.org/about-us/ethical-standards-research PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example

Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology

Developmental psychology attempts to understand cognitive, physical, and social-emotional development throughout the lifespan. In order to understand, for example, how maternal stress during pregnancy might impact the child later in life, pregnant women and children could be studied. Vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women, newborns, children, cognitively impaired individuals, incarcerated individuals, or older adults, require additional consideration and protection when planning to conduct research with them.

When conducting research in the field of human development, particularly with vulnerable populations, it is important to keep in mind that a unique set of ethical considerations should be taken into account. These populations need extra care to ensure their rights because some individuals may lack the mental capacity to give informed consent, may have decreased free will, or may be vulnerable in terms of their physical or mental welfare. As you approach this Discussion, keep in mind how ethical considerations might have affected the type of research that could be conducted.

For this Discussion, you will examine the role of ethics in developmental psychology research as it relates to vulnerable populations PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.

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To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review the example of a Discussion post and response found in this week’s Learning Resources as well as the Discussion Rubric to understand the Discussion’s expectations.
  • Review the Learning Resources related to ethics and research in the field of developmental psychology
  • Choose a population from the following:
    • Children
    • Women who are pregnant
    • Geriatric individuals
    • Individuals with cognitive disabilities
    • Adolescents

By Day 4

Based on the population you selected, post an explanation of the role of ethics in developmental psychology research with attention to the characteristics of this vulnerable population. Be specific in your post and use the Learning Resources to support your post. Use proper APA format and citations to support your explanation.

By Day 6

Respond to a post from at least one of your colleagues who selected a population different from that of your Discussion post and add one additional ethical consideration.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting and respond to any questions. Note what you have learned and/or any insights that you have gained as a result of your colleagues’ comments.

Submission and Grading Information

example 3

Ethical issues are created when researching human behavior because at times people can be exploited (Berk, 2018).  This happens more often with vulnerable populations such as people with cognitive disabilities.

When using individuals with cognitive disabilities for developmental research, the researcher needs to have a good understanding of how vulnerable this population is.  Even though this population may be over the age of 18, in most cases they do not have the intellectual ability to comprehend the details involved in developmental research studies.  For this reason, it is very difficult to obtain informed consent from individuals with cognitive disabilities.

Informed consent is one of the rights and welfare protections that researchers are required to follow according to the APA Ethics Code (APA, 2020).  In some cases, this population will have a legal guardian or someone who is legally authorized to represent the individual and this person must give informed consent (Fisher & Vacanti-Shova, 2012).   The language and terminology that researchers use when working with individuals with cognitive disabilities should always be at a level the prospective participants and/or their legal representative can understand (Fisher & Vacanti-Shova, 2012).   “Psychologists also should adjust reading and language comprehension levels of consent procedures to an individual’s developmental or educational level or reading or learning disability” (Fisher & Vacanti-Shova, 2012) PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.

According to APA Ethics Code it is also required that researchers also need to be sure that the participants are not exposed to any harm during the study and must be sure to maintain confidentiality of the participant’s personal information and research data (APA, 2020).

References

American Psychological Association. (2020).  Scholarly writing and publishing principles.  I Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Berk, L. E. (2018). Development through the lifespan (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Fisher, C. B., & Vacanti-Shova, K. (2012). The responsible conduct of psychological research: An overview of ethical principles, APA ethics code standards, and federal regulations.  In S. J. Knapp, M. C. Gottlieb, M. M. Handelman, & L. D. VandeCreek (Eds.), APA handbook of ethics in psychology, Vol. 2: Practice, teaching, and research (pp. 335-369). American Psychological Association PSYC-6215 Discussion: Research and Ethics in Psychology essay example.