PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1
Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each. Describe a current epidemic. Describe one example of each of the prevention types (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that could be applied to control the epidemic.
Topic 1 DQ 1
According to MacIntyre and Bui (2017) a true epidemic has a rise in case rates over days or weeks, whereas an endemic disease may rise or fall over years or decades. The words epidemic and pandemic are often misused. A pandemic is simply a global epidemic, and an epidemic is an outbreak of disease that attacks many people at about the same time and spreads through a defined population (MacIntyre and Bui, 2017). It is defined by rate of growth of the epidemic curve. Epidemics have a sudden and immediate impact on the health system and require surge capacity. The rapid increase in cases observed during an epidemic or pandemic is what causes immediate impacts on health systems, stressing these systems beyond normal operating capacity. A pandemic of a highly infectious microbe will evolve rapidly and affect many people within a short period of time (MacIntyre and Bui, 2017). PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1.
According to Troncoso (2015), an influenza pandemic once it begins, would be expected to reach its peak within 2 months. Malaria, TB and AMR organisms, are usually endemic diseases. Endemic diseases may occur in very high numbers, but their rate is constant or changes slowly, over months or years, sometimes decades (Troncoso, 2015). An unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus has been causing thousands of deaths in West Africa since 2014 (Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone). The Ebola virus was first identified in 1976 in Yambuku, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and Nzara, South Sudan. The Ebola virus is a zoonotic pathogen, and its circulation among humans is rare, which explains the fact that the outbreaks are intermittent and unpredictable. The most likely reservoir seems to be a fruit bat, although the link has not been confirmed (Chowell and Nishivra, 2014).
The virus has caused more than 30 outbreaks since it was identified in 1976, with less than 1600 deaths before 2014. In most cases, the virus started in rural areas and the epidemics were controlled with routine public health measures, such as the identification of cases, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine of the patient to break the chain of transmission. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1. These public health measures have a proven efficacy record for the control of epidemics (Chowell and Nishivra, 2014).
According to Chowell and Nishivra (2014) proven treatments or vaccines against Ebola are still not available. Hence, thus the current working toolbox available to control the spread of Ebola still hinges on supportive medical care to increase the survival of those infected and basic non-pharmaceutical public health measures to prevent transmission, namely: 1) infection control measures including standard precautions in health care settings; 2) rapid contact tracing and isolation of infectious individuals; and 3) social distancing interventions in the community which may include the dissemination of awareness campaigns to inform the population on how to avoid contracting the disease, quarantining individuals potentially exposed to infectious individuals and restricting the movement of communities exhibiting local transmission to prevent onward transmission PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1. These actions must be conducted in close collaboration with local community leaders to effectively reach the population at large (Chowell and Nishivra, 2014).
MacIntyre, C. R., & Bui, C. M. (2017). Pandemics, public health emergencies and antimicrobial resistance – putting the threat in an epidemiologic and risk analysis context.
Troncoso, A. (2015). Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5: 4, pgs. 255-259.
Chowell, G., & Nishivra, H. (2014). Transmission dynamics and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD): a review. BMC Medicine, 12: 196. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1.
Topic 1 DQ 1
Endemic is a disease that exists permanently in a region or population. An example of this is Mexico. The water in Mexico is known for having parasites that locals have built up an immunity to that people not from that region often get very sick over. Epidemic outbreaks are a disease that attacks many peoples at about the same time and may spread through one or several communities. An example of this would be the bird flu or mad cow disease. The areas that are affected and many different government agencies act with notifications and action plans to bring it under control. Pandemic would be something that spreads worldwide. Our ability to travel has brought this to the forefront of the governments and disease control PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1. The ability to work with other countries and knowing who is going where allows the population to be safe from a disease making itself present so quickly because of the people transporting the issues with them. Bed bugs would be an example of this.
Primary Prevention – When you are trying to prevent yourself from getting a disease. An example of this is sunscreen to prevent skin cancer
Secondary Prevention – This would be having a doctor give you an once over and check your skins condition to see if you have skin cancer and if you do be able to treat it as early as possible.
Tertiary Prevention – Is needed once something like skin cancer has happen and is now part of your life. The person learns to best adapt to the situation and learns the rules of living with such a situation.
World Health Organization. (2019). Dengue and severe dengue. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology Topic 1 DQ 1