Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay
Female Patient Cases-Case 3- Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay
Female Patient Cases-Case 3 ________________________________________ Make a list of minimum 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) with: Questions for the case: • Discuss the causative organism for each one. • Discuss and described the pathophysiology and symptomology/clinical manifestations of each. • Discuss patient education. • Develop the management plan (pharmacological and nonpharmacological). Submission Instructions: • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least at least 3 academic sources no older than 5 years (2016-2021).
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s)
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as STDs (Sexually transmitted diseases), are infections passed from one individual to another through sexual contact. STIs occur when a virus, bacteria, or parasite enters and grows in the body (van de Wijgert, 2017). There are several sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, syphilis, genital warts, and human papillomavirus Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay.
Causative Organism: Chlamydia is an STI caused by bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.
Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestation: Chlamydia has an infectious cycle and two developmental forms. The two developmental forms include an elementary body (EB) and a reticulate body (RB. Patients infected with chlamydia develop symptoms several weeks after engaging in sex with an infected person. The main symptoms in a patient infected with chlamydia include painful coitus, fever, nausea, and lower abdominal pain. When chlamydia affects the rectum in both men and women, it presents with bleeding, discharge, and rectal pain (Witkin et al., 2017).
Patient Education: Patients should take all the prescribed medicine. Besides, both sex partners need to be treated at the same time to avoid re-infection.
Pharmacological management plan: A single dose of azithromycin or doxycycline twice daily for 14days Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay.
Non-pharmacological management plan: Abstinence, avoiding having multiple sexual partners, having protected sex.
Causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium
Pathophysiology: Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the genital tract and urethra
Clinical Manifestation: Pus-like discharge on both eyes, sensitivity to light, anal itching, anal itching, and pus-like discharge from the rectum (Taylor et al., 2018)
Patient Education: Discuss safe sex practices
Pharmacological management plan: A single dose of ceftriaxone or a single dose of cefixime 400mg, or a single dose of azithromycin 1g
Non-pharmacological management plan: Abstain from oral, anal, and vaginal sex. Ensure you are in a long-term monogamous relationship. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Causative agent: Bacterias from gonorrhea and chlamydia which are, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, respectively.
Pathophysiology: Ascending infection of cervicovaginal microorganisms.
Clinical Manifestation: Chills, nausea and vomiting, painful coitus, abnormal vaginal discharge usually green or yellow, and pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen (Witkin et al., 2017)
Patient Education: Methods of preventing STIs and PID include avoiding unsafe sexual practices and reducing sexual partners.
Pharmacological management plan: Ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, ofloxacin plus doxycycline
Non-pharmacological management plan: Do not douche, get tested, and limit sex partners.
Causative agent: Bacterium Treponema pallidum
Pathophysiology: Attachment of fibronectin molecules to the endothelial surface of the vessels in organs leading to obliteration and inflammation of the small vessels causing endarteritis obliterans Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay.
Clinical Manifestation: Primary syphilis presents with a small, painless open ulcer on the skin, rectum, mouth, and genitals. Secondary syphilis presents with patchy hair loss, sore throat, fatigue, muscle aches, headaches, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes (Forrestel, Kovarik & Katz, 2020).
Patient Education: Use condoms and dental dams if you must have sex.
Pharmacological management plan: Single intramuscular injection of long-acting Benzathine penicillin G.
Non-pharmacological management plan: Avoid recreational drugs. Be monogamous or abstain.
Causative agent: Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay
Pathophysiology: Infection occurs at the basal cell layer of the stratified epithelial cells.
Clinical Manifestation: Itching and bleeding from the anus and the genitals. A change in the normal flow of urine. One or more small, flesh-colored painless lumps around the upper thighs, anus, penis, or vagina (Baandrup, Dehlendorff & Kjaer, 2021)
Patient Education: Use sanitary napkins for 2 to 3 weeks after treatment because you may experience watery vaginal discharge.
Pharmacological management plan: Imiquimod cream
Non-pharmacological management plan: Avoid sexual contact when using the Imiquimod cream.
Baandrup, L., Dehlendorff, C., & Kjaer, S. K. (2021). One-dose human papillomavirus vaccination and the risk of genital warts: a Danish nationwide population-based study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 73(9), e3220-e3226.
Forrestel, A. K., Kovarik, C. L., & Katz, K. A. (2020). Sexually acquired syphilis: historical aspects, microbiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 82(1), 1-14.
Taylor, S. N., Marrazzo, J., Batteiger, B. E., Hook III, E. W., Seña, A. C., Long, J., … & Mueller, J. (2018). Single-dose zoliflodacin (ETX0914) for treatment of urogenital gonorrhea. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(19), 1835-1845.
van de Wijgert, J. H. (2017). The vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections are interlinked: consequences for treatment and prevention. PLoS medicine, 14(12), e1002478.
Witkin, S. S., Minis, E., Athanasiou, A., Leizer, J., & Linares, I. M. (2017). Chlamydia trachomatis: the persistent pathogen. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 24(10), e00203- 17. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) Essay