Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes.

Main Post

Strep Throat leading to allergic reaction from antibiotics

In the scenario provided, our patient presented with a sore throat, reddened posterior pharynx, and white exudate on tonsils. The patient was tested posted for strep by a rapid strep test. The patient was prescribed amoxicillin, and after the first dose, he immediately had swelling of his tongue and lips with trouble breathing and wheezing.

Genetics role

Certain people are predisposed to have allergies. If this is the case for type I allergies, it is called atopic. If our male patient’s mother or father has an allergy, then our patient has about a 40% chance of developing allergies. If both parents have allergies, then he has around an 80% chance of developing allergies. If our patient is atopic, he possibly produces higher amounts of IgE and could have more Fc receptors to IgE on his mast cells. This could make his airways and skin more responsive as well. Many genes are associated with this atopic state; polymorphisms in a large diversity of cytokines that manage IgE synthesis (McCance & Huether, 2018) Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes.

What caused the symptoms

The patient possibly had a type I allergic hypersensitivity related to amoxicillin. Most of the symptoms of a type I reaction are due to the effects of histamine. The tissues that tend to be most affected contain a more significant number of mast cells and are more sensitive to histamine. The primary symptom being shortness of breath and wheezing could be because the throat was the main portal of entry for the allergen if it is the antibiotic. Effects of the allergy to the respiratory tract include vasodilation, inflammation, swelling, and edema of the larynx (McCance & Huether, 2018).

Physiologic response

Our patient had swelling of the tongue and lips with difficulty breathing and audible wheezes. The reaction to the medication caused an allergic reaction that produced a massive histamine response. This led to swelling, bronchoconstriction, and vasodilation. Since the cause of inflammation was due to histamine, it was an immediate response. The response led to vasodilation to increase capillary permeability, causing inflammation which led to trouble breathing and wheezing (David Woodruff, 2020) Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes.

Cells involved

In the inflammatory response, there are many cells present. As the histamine enters the body, it causes vasodilation as the capillaries are dilated. The mast cells are activated by the allergen and release histamine. There are chemokines involved that act as messengers. Other cells involved could include phagocytes as the first responders, such as neutrophils. The body turns into a battlefield with everyone showing up, including B cells and T cells (Khan Academy, 2010).

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Things that could change my response

If the kid’s genetics played a different factor, he might not be allergic to the antibiotic, and therefore there would be no allergic reaction. My genes have blessed me that, to my knowledge, I have no known drug allergies. I am also blessed to be able to eat peanut butter and shellfish. Our patient here may be atopic, making him predisposed to allergies with a more sensitive system.

References

David Woodruff. (2020, October 31). Acute Inflammation: The First Line of Defense. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkKxBbKW97Q

Khan Academy. (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & Medicine | Khan Academy [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

 I admire how you layout and summarized the topic and your responses in the discussion post. It is informative and direct; that’s why it interested me to do some more readings about allergies.

response 

Thankfully, I don’t have any allergies. Even last spring, I did not have any symptoms of sneezing or a runny nose.

But I believe I’m not yet on the safe side. According to Eaddy Norton & Broyles, drug-induced anaphylaxis is most frequent in females, but there is no clear sex predominance (Eaddy Norton, Broyles, 2019).

In addition, anaphylaxis by all causes has been reported with higher frequency in adult females than in males, and this predominance appears after puberty. However, there is no sex difference in rates of fatal anaphylaxis (Turner e. al, 2017)

With all this information given, as a female we should still be cautious about what we take and eat because it may not be evident in our later years but might come out in the future.

Thank you again for the input and the idea on how to outline the topics and their answers Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes.

References

Eaddy Norton, A.; Broyles, A.D. Drug allergy in children and adults: Is it the double X chromosome? Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019, 122, 148–155. Retrieved from

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1535/htm

Turner, P.J.; Jerschow, E.; Umasunthar, T.; Lin, R.; Campbell, D.E.; Boyle, R.J. Fatal Anaphylaxis: Mortality Rate and Risk Factors. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Pract. 2017, 5, 1169–1178. Retrieved from https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1535/htm Strep Throat NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes