Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as Strep throat, is a bacterial infection in the throat. The type of bacteria commonly identified in strep throat is group A streptococcus. It presents with symptoms such as sore throat, dysphagia, white exudate on tonsils, enlarged tonsils, fever, and adenopathy. Streptococcal bacteria are contagious and can spread through airborne droplets. Treatment includes oral antibiotics, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen (Strep throat, 2018).
It has been found that patients that frequently contract strep throat are correlated with recurrent tonsillitis and a weak immune response to group A streptococcus. Some people are carriers of the Group A strain and there could also be a family history of recurrent streptococcal pharyngitis (Citroner, 2019). Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes
The patient develops a fever in response to the immune system trying to fight the infection. The streptococcal bacteria caused the sore throat, the reddened posterior pharynx, the white exudate on tonsils that were enlarged, and anterior and posterior adenopathy.
The patient was prescribed an antibiotic called Amoxicillin to treat his strep throat. The physiological response to him taking the antibiotic was swelling of the tongue and lips with difficulty breathing; which is known as an allergic reaction. This response occurred due to the immune system overreacting to the allergen, which was the antibiotic. The body produces antibodies called Immunoglobulin E that travel to cells that release a chemical called histamine that caused the symptoms such as difficulty breathing and swelling of the tongue and lips (Allergies 2018).
The cells that are involved in strep throat include epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Epithelial cells are one of the first cells that encounter group A streptococcus pyogenes, also known a GAS, during pharyngeal infection. They enact barrier defenses, secretion of antimicrobial peptides, and innate immune signals (Soderholm et al., 2018). Neutrophils begin to multiple and entrap and kill invading bacteria, such as GAS. Macrophages and dendritic cells activate inflammatory signaling pathways and pathogen recognition to fight against GAS infection (Valderrama & Nizet, 2018).
Children age five through fifteen are more likely to get strep throat. Since the bacteria is highly contagious, close contact with other people such as in schools and daycares increases the risk of getting and spreading the infection. Children also don’t cover their mouth and nose when they sneeze or wash their hands frequently, which contributes to spreading the infection (Worried your sore throat may be strep, 2018).
Allergies. (2018, January 06). Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/allergies/symptoms-causes/syc-20351497
Citroner, G. (2019, February 11). Here’s Why Certain Kids Repeatedly Get Strep Throat. Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/why-your-kid-keeps-getting-strep-throat
Soderholm, A. T., Barnett, T. C., Korn, O., Rivera-Hernandez, T., Seymour, L. M., Schulz, B. L., . . . Walker, M. J. (2018). Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 8. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2018.00160
Strep throat. (2018, September 28). Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/strep-throat/symptoms-causes/syc-20350338
Valderrama, J. A., & Nizet, V. (2018). Group A Streptococcus encounters with host macrophages. Future Microbiology,13(1), 119-134. doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0142
Worried your sore throat may be strep? (2018, November 01). Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html