VAP PICOT Question Example

VAP PICOT Question Example

I need a PICOT question that deals with nursing research independently, it cannot be including anything that deals with medication or treatment since we will not be ordering the medications, etc. I also need a \”clinical significance\” portion explaining what the significance of the PICOT question is in the healthcare field.

Identification of the Nursing Problem

VAP (Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia) is a growing concern among critical patients admitted in ICU settings. As supported by Zuckerman, (2016), the incidence of VAP is increasing gradually among adult patients admitted in ICU settings under mechanical ventilation. VAP PICOT Question Example.


            Clinical significance

VAP is a major cause of prolonged admissions, morbidity, mortality and additional medical costs in the US. According to Villar et al. (2016), VAP occurs between 48-72 hours after intubation. It contributes to half of the hospital-acquired pneumonia infections with an 8-40% prevalence. An estimated 85% of hospital-acquired pneumonia is linked to intubation.  Annually in the US, there are between 250,000-300,000 cases of VAP with a 0-50% mortality (Zuckerman, 2016) VAP PICOT Question Example. VAP   has organizational, financial, individual and psychological impacts. At the organizational level, it results in additional healthcare costs and lowers the safety and quality of care, which ultimately results in loss of revenue (Zuckerman, 2016). Healthcare staff may be stressed due to a patient’s deteriorating health status, which negatively impacts healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. Families are affected both economically and psychologically in terms of saving more household income to cater to medical needs besides dealing with the psychological stress of prolonged sickness VAP PICOT Question Example.


According to Li et al. (2015) oral chlorhexidine is an effective reduction and prevention approach of VAP. It reduces the bacterial colonization of the oral cavity as the major pathogen that causes infections.

PICOT Question: Among intubated or mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU aged 45 years or older(P), does the use of oral chlorhexidine(I) compared to no chlorhexidine(C) help to reduce the incidence of VAP(O) within 8 weeks(T)? VAP PICOT Question Example.

PICOT Format

Population-intubated or mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU aged 45 years or older

Intervention-Use of oral chlorhexidine

Comparison-no oral chlorhexidine VAP PICOT Question Example

Outcome- reduce the incidence of VAP

Time-8 weeks



Li, L., Ai, Z., Li, L., Zheng, X., & Jie, L. (2015). Can routine oral care with antiseptics prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation? An updated meta-analysis from 17 randomized controlled trials. International journal of clinical and experimental medicine8(2), 1645.

Villar, C. C., Pannuti, C. M., Nery, D. M., Morillo, C. M., Carmona, M. J. C., & Romito, G. A. (2016). Effectiveness of intraoral chlorhexidine protocols in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Respiratory care61(9), 1245-1259.

Zuckerman, L. M. (2016). Oral chlorhexidine use to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a review of the current literature. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing35(1), 25-36 VAP PICOT Question Example.